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Staroveká námorná základňa objavená pod vodou neďaleko Atén

Staroveká námorná základňa objavená pod vodou neďaleko Atén



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V roku 493 pred n. L. Grécky generál a politik Themistocles vyzval Atény, aby vybudovali námornú silu 200 trirémov ako baštu proti Peržanom, ktorí zaútočili a boli odrazení v roku 490 na súši v bitke pri Marathone. Do troch rokov Perzia opäť neúspešne zaútočila na Grécko, tentoraz aj po mori. Takže namiesto toho, aby bol Západ ovplyvnený Perziou, zostal pod kontrolou gréckeho náboženstva a kultúry vrátane demokratického štýlu vlády, ktorý je údajne stelesnením civilizácie.

Osudy gréckeho námorníctva v priebehu storočí ubúdali a ubúdali, ale takmer päť storočí bola jeho hlavná základňa neďaleko Atén v meste Pireus, ktoré sa skúma už 15 rokov.

Tento týždeň dánsky archeológ vedúci podmorskej archeologickej expedície uviedol, že našiel pozostatky starovekej aténskej námornej základne v prístave Pireus Mounichia a Zea.

Doktor Bjørn Lovén z projektu Zea Harbor a Kodanskej univerzity, vedúci skupiny gréckych archeológov, nazýva prístrešky a opevnenia lodí jednou z najväčších štruktúr starovekého sveta. Po stáročia boli kľúčovým znakom gréckej obrany a základňou pre útoky proti jeho nepriateľom po celej dĺžke a šírke Stredozemného mora.

Lode s prístreškom na lodi vo výkrese z Univerzita v Kodani

"Na základe keramiky a uhlíka 14 pochádzajúcich z opracovaného kusu dreva nachádzajúceho sa v základoch kolonády sme datovali prístrešky lodí do roku 520-480 pred n. L. Alebo krátko potom, čo znamená, že v týchto prístreškoch boli pravdepodobne umiestnené lode." ktoré boli nasadené do boja proti perzským inváznym silám počas slávnej bitky pri Salamíne 480 pred n. l., “uvádza Lovén v tlačovej správe. "Táto námorná bitka bola kľúčovou udalosťou v gréckej histórii; je ťažké predpovedať, čo by sa stalo, keby grécka flotila prehrala v Salamíne, ale je zrejmé, že perzské víťazstvo by malo obrovské dôsledky na následný kultúrny a sociálny vývoj v Európe. Víťazstvo v Salamíne sa správne odráža v histórii a v dnešnom svete prebúdza úžas a inšpiráciu. “

Video z Kodanskej univerzity (pozri nižšie) hovorí: „Grécka flotila mala značný početný prevah ... V opačnom prípade Gréci vyhrali bitku pri Salamíne a zastavili perzskú inváziu. Kľúčovým prvkom tohto víťazstva bolo 200 aténskych triém. Toto obrovské historické víťazstvo znamenalo, že moderný svet bol ovplyvnený skôr Gréckom než Perziou a aténske námorníctvo sa stalo chrbticou prvej európskej demokracie. “

Video nazýva víťazstvo nad Perziou „mimoriadnym historickým vývojom“.

Video produkoval Dr. Bjørn Lovén z projektu Zea Harbor o bitke pri Salamíne

Aj keď mnohí vnímajú západnú kultúru a predovšetkým gréčtinu ako vrchol úspechov, starovekí Peržania mali kultúru, vládu a náboženstvá na špičkovej úrovni. Článok na Livius.org skúma „či Athénčania vo veku po perzských vojnách (povedzme po roku 479) prispôsobili perzské predstavy o oblasti architektúry a vlády“.

Niekto by mohol povedať, že starovekí Peržania boli vyspelejší, pretože zatiaľ čo Grécko bolo postavené na otrockej práci, Kýros Veľký zrušil otroctvo pred gréckymi a perzskými vojnami.

Gréci postavili prístav, aby ho mohli uzavrieť obrovské brány opevnené vežami na oboch stranách. Postavili ďalšie opevnenia, ktoré by mohli zneškodniť akékoľvek útočiace lode, čo by znamenalo, že útok na námornú základňu bol takmer samovražedný, hovorí Ha’aretz. Navyše, Gréci mohli pretiahnuť obrovskú reťaz cez ústa prístavu, aby oddialili prípadných bombardujúcich útočníkov.

"Prvýkrát sme identifikovali námorné základne Pireus v 5. storočí pred naším letopočtom-lodné prístrešky, sklzy a prístavné opevnenia," povedal Lovén pre Haaretz.

K objavu dvoch námorných základní v Pireu, jednej v prístave Zea a jednej v prístave Mounichia, došlo v roku 2010, keď k nim archeológov naviedol starý rybársky sprievodca. Povedal im, že keď bol chlapec, lovil ryby z vrcholu starovekého stĺpca v prístave Mounichia.

Prístavy Mounichia a Zea sú dnes také znečistené, že na potápanie je potrebné špeciálne vybavenie. (Fotka projektu Zea Harbour)

„Niektoré dni bola v prístave viditeľnosť pod vodou len 20 centimetrov, takže sme mali extrémne zlé pracovné podmienky,“ hovorí doktor Lovén v tlačovej správe. „Pozostatky sme však nakoniec našli a vykopali sme šesť prístreškov, ktoré boli použité na ochranu gréckych lodí pred červami a sušením, keď neboli na mori potrebné. A prístrešky boli monumentálne: základy pod stĺpmi boli 1,4 x 1,4 metra a samotné kôlne boli 7-8 metrov vysoké a 50 metrov dlhý. "

Od roku 480 pred n. L. V Grécku pokračovali námorné a pozemné boje so Spartou; Peržania v Trácii, Malej Ázii a Egypte; Korint, Sicília a Taliansko; Macedónsko; a Rímu, po ktorých boli v roku 86 pred n. l. zničené prístavy a prístrešky v Pireu. Sparťania už raz zničili obranu prístavu a prístrešky lodí, v roku 404 pred n. L.

Krátku históriu gréckych námorných a vojenských záležitostí nájdete na tomto odkaze.


História Bytez

Archeológovia objavili pozostatky mohutného opevnenia, sklzov a prístreškov pre lode v prístavnom meste Atény v meste Pireus.

Tento prístav a jeho zariadenia hrali veľkú úlohu pri porážke Peržanov počas známych perzských vojen.

"Prvýkrát sme identifikovali námorné základne Pireus v 5. storočí pred naším letopočtom-lodné prístrešky, sklzy a prístavné opevnenia," povedal Haaretz Bjørn Lovén, riaditeľ projektu Zea Harbour. Objavy kladú námorné základne Pireus na historickú a archeologickú úroveň dôležitosti, ako sú Akropola a Parthenon alebo aténska Agora, dodáva Lovén.

S ďalšími deviatimi nájdenými v Zea Harbour, podvodné vykopávky odkryli pozostatky 15 lodných prístreškov z 5. storočia pred n. L. Na základe keramiky a uhlíka-14 pochádzajúcich z opracovaného kusu dreva nachádzajúceho sa v základoch kolonády, tím datoval prístrešky lodí do roku 520-480 pred n. L., Alebo krátko potom.


2. Bitka pri Actiu

Kredit: Antonio Vassilacchi/Getty Images

V roku 31 p.n.l. sa proti sebe postavili ozbrojené jednotky Octaviana a Marca Antonyho neďaleko gréckeho polostrova v meste Actium. V stávke bola kontrola nad Rímskou republikou, ktorá visela na vlásku od zavraždenia Júliusa Caesara asi pred 13 rokmi. Antony a jeho milenka Kleopatra velili niekoľko stovkám lodí, z ktorých mnohé boli dobre obrnenými vojnovými galérami vybavenými drevenými vežami pre lukostrelcov, mohutnými baranmi a ťažkými hákmi. Plavidlá Octavian boli väčšinou menšie liburnské plavidlá schopné vyššej rýchlosti a manévrovateľnosti a obsluhované skúsenejšími posádkami.

Podľa starovekého historika Plutarcha nasledujúce zasnúbenie rýchlo nadobudlo charakter pozemnej bitky, pričom obe strany navzájom strieľali horiace šípy a dvíhali hrnce rozžeraveného smoly a ťažkých kameňov. Vojnové galeje Antonyho sa v zápale boja ukázali byť pomalé a nemotorné a Octavianovi obratnejší Liburniani dosiahli úspech tým, že sa rojili okolo nepriateľských plavidiel a početne útočili. Keď sa bitka obrátila v prospech Octaviana, Kleopatra stratila nervy a prikázala svojim 60 plavidlám boj opustiť. Nasledoval zamilovaný Marc Antony s niekoľkými vlastnými loďami, pričom väčšinu svojich síl nechal ohromiť Octavianovou flotilou. Porážka v Actiu bola začiatkom konca pre Antonia a Kleopatru, obaja neskôr spáchali samovraždu, keď sa Octavianove sily presťahovali do Egypta. Po porážke svojho hlavného rivala Octavianus upevnil svoj vzťah k Rímu, prijal čestné meno 𠇊ugustus ” a vládol viac ako 40 rokov ako jeho prvý cisár.


Obsah

Námorná prehistória Upraviť

Existujú náznaky, že na kostre nosorožca zostali kamenné nástroje a stopy, ktoré naznačujú, že prví hominidi prekročili more a kolonizovali filipínsky ostrov Luzon v časovom rámci už pred 777 000 až 631 000 rokmi. [12]

K najstarším námorným plavbám anatomicky moderných ľudí došlo pred 53 000 až 65 000 rokmi, keď austrálsko-melanéske populácie migrovali do sahulskej pevniny (moderná Austrália a Nová Guinea) z dnes čiastočne podmorského polostrova Sundaland. Prejdené vzdialenosti sú však relatívne krátke a je nepravdepodobné, že by boli použité skutočné námorné plavidlá. Prechod mohol byť vykonaný primitívnymi plavákmi alebo plťami alebo náhodnými prostriedkami, najmä preto, že Australo-Melanézania nikdy nedosiahli ostrov Melanesia mimo viditeľnosti mimo vnútrozemia, až kým neboli kontaktovaní Austronesianom. [13] [14]

V histórii veľrybárstva sa verí, že ľudia začali loviť veľryby v Kórei najmenej 6000 rokov pred naším letopočtom. [15] Najstaršou známou metódou lovu veľrýb je jednoducho ich vyhnanie na breh umiestnením niekoľkých malých člnov medzi veľrybu a otvorené more a pokúšaním sa ich vystrašiť hlukom, aktivitou a možno aj malými nesmrtiacimi zbraňami, ako napr. šípky. [16]

Austronézska expanzia Upraviť

Austronesania boli prví ľudia, ktorí vynašli technológie oceánskej plavby, a to katamarán, výložníkovú loď, plachtu tanja a plachtu krabieho pazúra. To im umožnilo kolonizovať veľkú časť indicko-tichomorského regiónu počas austronézskej expanzie, ktorá sa začala približne v rokoch 3000 až 1500 pred Kristom a skončila kolonizáciou Veľkonočného ostrova a Nového Zélandu v 10. až 13. storočí nášho letopočtu. [5] [6] [7] Pred koloniálnou érou 16. storočia boli Austronesania najrozšírenejšou etnolingvistickou skupinou, ktorá pokrývala polovicu planéty od Veľkonočného ostrova vo východnom Tichom oceáne po Madagaskar v západnom Indickom oceáne. [17] [18] Tiež založili rozsiahle námorné obchodné siete, medzi ktorými je neolitický predchodca toho, čo by sa stalo námornou hodvábnou cestou. [8]

  • Hōkūleʻa, polynézsky plavebný katamarán s plachtami z krabových pazúrov
  • Balatik, Filipínska dvojpodperová (trimaranová) parawa s uškou
  • Melanesiansingle-outriggertepukei s dopredu nasadenou krabou pazúrom zo Šalamúnových ostrovov
  • Javanesejong s tanja plachtami, úzke kanoe Maorwar poháňané pádlovaním

Získanie technológie katamaránov a výložníkov člnmi, ktoré nie sú Austronézanmi na Srí Lanke a v južnej Indii, je výsledkom veľmi raného austronézskeho kontaktu s týmto regiónom vrátane Maldív a Lakadivských ostrovov. Odhaduje sa, že k tomu došlo okolo roku 1000 až 600 pred naším letopočtom a ďalej, čo viedlo k rozvoju vlastných námorných obchodných sietí Indie a Srí Lanky. To môže zahŕňať obmedzenú kolonizáciu, ktorá bola medzičasom asimilovaná. To je stále zrejmé v srílanských a juhoindických jazykoch. Napríklad tamilčina paṭavu, Telugu paḍavaa Kannada paḍahu, všetky znamenajú „loď“, všetky sú odvodené z proto-hesperonesiančiny *padaw, „plachetnica“, s austronézskymi príbuznými ako Javanese perahu, Kadazan padau, Maranao padaw, Cebuano paráw, Samoan folau, Havajský halaua Maori wharau. [7]

Podobne prvé čínske stretnutie s veľkými námornými loďami je prostredníctvom obchodu s juhovýchodnými ázijskými austronézskymi loďami (pravdepodobne jávsky alebo sumaterský) počas dynastie Han (220 pred n. L.-200 n. L.), Ako ich zaznamenal čínsky historik Wan Chen (萬 震) vo svojej knihe z 3. storočia n. l. „Podivné veci z juhu“. To viedlo k vývoju vlastných čínskych námorných technológií neskôr, počas dynastie Song v 10. až 13. storočí nášho letopočtu. [19] [20]

V najvzdialenejších rozpätiach austronézskej expanzie prekročili kolonisti z Bornea Indický oceán na západ, aby sa okolo roku 500 n. L. Usadili na Madagaskare a na Komoroch. [22] [23]

Na východe bola prvou skutočnou oceánskou plavbou kolonizácia Mikronézskych ostrovov Severné Mariány z Filipín. Nasledovalo ďalšie sťahovanie na juh a na východ na ostrov Melanesia až na ostrovy mimo rozsah viditeľnosti medzi ostrovmi, ako sú Tonga a Samoa. Tento región obsadila austronézska kultúra Lapita. Po asi dvetisícročnej prestávke sa prví Polynézania zhruba od roku 700 do roku 1200 n. L. Rozšírili na východ na Cookove ostrovy, Francúzsku Polynéziu, Havaj, Veľkonočný ostrov a Nový Zéland. [18] [24] [25]

Austronézske etniká používali pevný navigačný systém: Orientácia na mori sa vykonáva pomocou rôznych prírodných znakov a pomocou veľmi výraznej astronomickej techniky nazývanej „navigácia po hviezdnej ceste“. Navigátori v zásade určujú prove lode na ostrovy, ktoré sú rozpoznávané podľa polohy stúpania a zapadania určitých hviezd nad horizontom. [26]: 10

Staroveké trasy a miesta Upraviť

Staroveké námorné trasy zvyčajne začínali na Ďalekom východe alebo po rieke z Madhjapradéša prekladaním cez historický Bharuch (Bharakuccha), prechádzali okolo nehostinného pobrežia dnešného Iránu a potom sa rozdelili okolo Hadhramautu do dvoch prúdov na sever do Adenského zálivu a odtiaľ do Levantu. , alebo na juh do Alexandrie cez prístavy Červeného mora, ako napríklad Axum. Každá väčšia trasa zahŕňala prekládku na zabalenie karavanu pre zvieratá, cestu púštnou krajinou a riziko banditov a vydieračských poplatkov od miestnych potentátov. [27]

Námorný obchod sa začal bezpečnejším pobrežným obchodom a vyvíjal sa s využitím monzúnových vetrov, čoskoro vyústil do prekročenia hraníc obchodu, akými sú Arabské more a Bengálsky záliv. [2] Južná Ázia mala viacero námorných obchodných trás, ktoré ju spájali s juhovýchodnou Áziou, čo sťažovalo kontrolu nad jednou trasou, čo viedlo k námornému monopolu. [2] Indické spojenia s rôznymi štátmi juhovýchodnej Ázie ho chránili pred blokádami na iných trasách. [2] Využitím námorných obchodných ciest bol v 2. storočí pred naším letopočtom pre Rimanov možný hromadný obchod s komoditami. [28] Rímske obchodné plavidlo by sa mohlo plaviť po Stredozemnom mori za mesiac pri šesťdesiatine nákladov na pozemné trasy. [29]

Egypt Upraviť

Starovekí Egypťania mali znalosti o stavbe plachiet. [30]

Prvé vojnové lode starovekého Egypta boli postavené počas raného stredného kráľovstva a možno - na konci starej ríše, ale prvá zmienka a podrobný popis dostatočne veľkej a silne vyzbrojenej lode pochádza zo 16. storočia pred naším letopočtom. „A nariadil som postaviť dvanásť vojnových lodí s baranmi, zasvätených Amunovi alebo Sobkovi alebo Maatovi a Sekhmetovi, ktorých obraz bol korunovaný ako najlepšie bronzové nosy. Prístrešok na auto a vybavená vonkajšia veža sa týčil nad vodami, pre mnohých vodákov mal krytú veslársku palubu nielen z bočné, ale a vrchné. a boli na palube osemnástich vesiel v dvoch radoch hore a sedeli na dvoch veslároch a na dolných - jeden, sto osem veslárov. A dvanásť veslárov vzadu pracovalo na troch veslách riadenia. A zablokovala loď nášho Veličenstva v troch priečkach (priedeloch), aby ju neutopila vrazením bezbožných, a námorníci mali čas dieru opraviť. A naše Veličenstvo zariadilo pre lukostrelcov štyri veže - dve vzadu a dve na nose a jednu nad druhým malým - na stožiari s úzkymi dierkami. v piatom prste (3,2 mm) sú pokryté bronzom, ako aj strecha s baldachýnom a jeho vesláre. Na nose majú (nesené) tri útočné ťažké šípy do kuše tak zapálili živicu alebo olej soľou Setha (pravdepodobne ni trate) roztrhol špeciálnu zmes a dierovanú (?) olovenú guľu s mnohými dierami (?) a jednu rovnakú na korme. a dlhá loď sedemdesiat päť lakťov (41 m), a šírka šestnásť, a v bitke môžu ísť tri štvrtiny iteru za hodinu (asi 6,5 uzla). "Text hrobky Amenhotepa I. (KV39). Keď Thutmose III dosiahol výtlak vojnových lodí až 360 ton a niesol až desať nových ťažkých a ľahkých až sedemnástich bronzových prameňov na báze katapultov, nazývaných" obliehacia kuša " - presnejšie obliehacie luky Stále sa objavili obrovské katamarány, ktoré sú ťažkými vojnovými loďami a boli používané v dobách Ramessa III., Dokonca aj vtedy, keď bola dynastia Ptolemaiovcov. [31]

Podľa gréckeho historika Herodota vyslal Necho II expedíciu Féničanov, ktorá údajne v nejakom čase medzi rokom 610 a pred rokom 594 pred n. L. Vyplávala za tri roky z Červeného mora okolo Afriky do ústia Nílu. Niektorí egyptológovia spochybňujú, že by takú expedíciu povolil egyptský faraón [32], s výnimkou dôvodu obchodu na starých námorných trasách.

Viera v Herodotov spis, ktorá mu bola odovzdaná ústnou tradíciou [33], je predovšetkým preto, že s nedôverou uviedol, že Feničania „Keď sa plavili západným smerom po južnom konci Líbye (Afrika), mali slnko napravo - severne od nich" (História 4.42) - v časoch Herodota nebolo všeobecne známe, že Afrika je obklopená oceánom (pričom južná časť Afriky sa považuje za spojenú s Áziou [34]). Je to fantastické tvrdenie, ktoré je typickým príkladom príbehu niektorých moreplavcov, a Hérodotos by ho preto možno nikdy nespomenul, keby nebol založený na faktoch a nebol na ňom naliehané. [35]

Tento raný opis Nechovej expedície ako celku je diskutabilný, aj keď sa odporúča mať na túto tému otvorenú myseľ [36], ale Strabo, Polybius a Ptolemaios o popise pochybovali. Egyptológ A. B. Lloyd naznačuje, že Gréci v tejto dobe chápali, že každý, kto pôjde dostatočne na juh a potom sa obráti na západ, bude mať po svojej pravici Slnko, ale považoval za neuveriteľné, že Afrika siahala tak ďaleko na juh. Naznačuje, že „je krajne nepravdepodobné, že by egyptský kráľ konal alebo mohol konať tak, ako je zobrazený Necho“, a že príbeh mohol byť spustený zlyhaním Sataspesovho pokusu obísť Afriku pod vládou Xerxa ​​Veľkého. [37] Bez ohľadu na to tomu verili Herodotos a Plínius. [38]

Morské národy boli oveľa skôr konfederáciou námorných nájazdníkov, ktorí sa plavili na východné pobrežie Stredozemného mora, spôsobovali politické nepokoje a pokúšali sa vstúpiť alebo ovládať egyptské územie počas konca 19. dynastie, a najmä v 8. roku Ramesse III. 20. dynastia. [39] Egyptský faraón Merneptah na ne výslovne odkazuje výrazom „morské zahraničie (alebo„ národy [40]) mora “[41] [42] vo svojom Veľkom karnakskom nápise. [43] Aj keď sa niektorí vedci domnievajú, že „napadli“ Cyprus a Levantu, táto hypotéza je sporná.

Kingdom of Punt Edit

V dávnych dobách malo kráľovstvo Punt, o ktorom sa niektorí egyptológovia domnievajú, že sa nachádzalo v oblasti súčasného Somálska, stabilné obchodné spojenie so starovekými Egypťanmi a vyvážalo vzácne prírodné zdroje, ako je myrha, kadidlo a guma. Táto obchodná sieť pokračovala až do klasickej éry. Mestské štáty Mossylon, Opone, Malao, Mundus a Tabae v Somálsku sa zapojili do lukratívnej obchodnej siete spájajúcej somálskych obchodníkov s Feníciou, Ptolemickým Egyptom, Gréckom, Partskou Perziou, Sabou, Nabataea a Rímskou ríšou. Somálski námorníci používali na prepravu svojho nákladu staroveké somálske námorné plavidlo známe ako beden.

Stredomorská úprava

Do 2. tisícročia pred n. L. Pôsobili minojskí obchodníci z Kréty vo východnom Stredomorí. Feničania boli starovekou civilizáciou so stredom na severe starovekého Kanaánu, so srdcom pozdĺž pobrežia súčasného Libanonu, Sýrie a severného Izraela. Fenická civilizácia bola podnikavá kultúra námorného obchodu, ktorá sa rozšírila po Stredozemnom mori počas prvého tisícročia pred naším letopočtom, medzi rokmi 1200 pred Kristom a 900 pred naším letopočtom. Napriek tomu, že starodávne hranice týchto kultúr zameraných na mesto kolísali, mesto Tyre sa zdalo byť najjužnejším. Sarepta medzi Sidonom a Týrom je najdôkladnejšie vyhĺbeným mestom fénickej vlasti. Feničania často obchodovali prostredníctvom kuchynky, plachetnice poháňanej ľuďmi. Boli prvou civilizáciou, ktorá vytvorila birému. Stále sa diskutuje na tému, či boli Kanaánčania a Feničania odlišnými národmi alebo nie.

Stredozemné more bolo zdrojom lode, galéry, vyvinutej pred rokom 1000 pred Kristom, a rozvoj námornej technológie podporil rozšírenie stredomorskej kultúry. Grécka triéra bola najbežnejšou loďou starovekého stredomorského sveta a využívala pohonnú silu veslárov. Stredomorské národy vyvinuli technológiu majákov a postavili veľké majáky založené na ohni, predovšetkým Maják v Alexandrii, postavený v 3. storočí pred naším letopočtom (v rokoch 285 až 247 pred n. L.) Na ostrove Pharos v Alexandrii v Egypte.

Mnohí v starovekých západných spoločnostiach, ako napríklad staroveké Grécko, boli v morskom úžase a zbožňovali ich, pretože verili, že človek už nepatrí sebe, keď sa raz vydal na námornú plavbu. Verili, že môže byť kedykoľvek obetovaný hnevu veľkého morského boha. Pred Grékmi boli Kariáni raní obyvatelia Stredozemného mora, ktorí cestovali ďaleko. Raní spisovatelia nemajú dobrú predstavu o pokroku v navigácii ani o mužovom námorníctve. Jeden z prvých príbehov moreplavby bol Odysseus.

V gréckej mytológii boli Argonauti skupinou hrdinov, ktorí v rokoch pred trójskou vojnou sprevádzali Jasona na Colchise pri jeho hľadaní zlatého rúna. Ich meno pochádza z ich lode, Argo, ktorá bola zase pomenovaná po svojom staviteľovi Argusovi. „Argonauti“ teda doslova znamenajú „námorníci Argo“. Plavba gréckeho moreplavca Pytheasa z Massalie je príkladom veľmi ranej plavby. [44] Príslušný astronóm a geograf [44] Pytheas sa vydal z Grécka do západnej Európy a na Britské ostrovy. [44]

The periplusdoslova „plavba okolo“, v starovekej navigácii Feničanov, Grékov a Rimanov bol rukopisný dokument, v ktorom boli zoradené prístavy a pobrežné pamiatky s približnými vzdialenosťami, ktoré kapitán plavidla mohol očakávať pobrežie. Niekoľko príkladov periploi prežili.

Pirátstvo, čo je lúpež spáchaná na mori alebo niekedy aj na brehu, siaha do klasickej antiky a s najväčšou pravdepodobnosťou aj oveľa ďalej. Tyrhénčania, Ilýrijci [45] a Tráci [ potrebná citácia ] boli v dávnych dobách známi ako piráti. Ostrov Lemnos dlho odolával gréckemu vplyvu a zostal útočiskom tráckych pirátov. V 1. storočí pred naším letopočtom existovali pozdĺž anatolského pobrežia pirátske štáty, ktoré ohrozovali obchodovanie s Rímskou ríšou.

Najstaršia morská kultúra v Stredomorí je spojená s kardiovou keramikou. Ich prvé dojemné sklady z obdobia 6400 - 6200 pred n. L. Sú na ostrovoch Epirus a Korfu. Osady sa potom objavujú v Albánsku a Dalmácii na východnom pobreží Jadranského mora v rokoch 6100 až 5900 pred n. L. [46] Najstarší dátum v Taliansku pochádza z mesta Coppa Nevigata na pobreží Jadranského mora v južnom Taliansku, možno už v roku 6000 pred Kr. Tiež počas kultúry Su Carroppu na Sardínii, už v počiatočných fázach (nízke vrstvy do jaskyne Su Coloru, asi 6000 pred n. L.), Sa objavujú rané príklady kardiovej keramiky. [47] Na sever a na západ sú všetky bezpečné dátumy rádiokarbónov zhodné s dátumami pre Iberiu c. 5500 kal. Pred n. L., Čo naznačuje rýchle rozšírenie kardia a príbuzných kultúr: 2 000 km od janovského zálivu po ústie Mondega pravdepodobne nebude trvať dlhšie ako 100–200 rokov. To naznačuje námornú expanziu výsadbou kolónií pozdĺž pobrežia. [48]

Perzské vojny Upraviť

V Iónii (moderné egejské pobrežie Turecka) grécke mestá, ktoré zahŕňali veľké centrá ako Milét a Halikarnas, neboli schopné udržať si nezávislosť a dostali sa pod vládu Perzskej ríše v polovici 6. storočia pred n. V roku 499 pred n. L. Gréci povstali v Iónskom povstaní a Atény a niektoré ďalšie grécke mestá im išli na pomoc. V roku 490 pred n. L. Perzský veľký kráľ Dareios I. po potlačení iónskych miest vyslal flotilu na potrestanie Grékov. Peržania pristáli v Attike, ale v bitke pri Maratóne ich porazilo grécke vojsko vedené aténskym generálom Miltiadesom. Pohrebnú mohylu aténskych mŕtvych je ešte stále možné vidieť na Marathone. O desať rokov neskôr Dariusov nástupca Xerxes I poslal po zemi oveľa silnejšiu silu. Potom, čo ho sparťanský kráľ Leonidas I zdržal pri Thermopylách, Xerxes postúpil do Attiky, kde zajal a vypálil Atény. Athénčania však mesto evakuovali po mori a za Themistokla porazili perzskú flotilu v bitke pri Salamíne. O rok neskôr Gréci pod sparťanskými pausaniami porazili pri Plataea perzské vojsko. Aténska flotila sa potom obrátila na vyháňanie Peržanov z Egejského mora a v roku 478 pred n. L. Zajali Byzanciu. Pritom Atény zapísali všetky ostrovné štáty a niektorých kontinentálnych spojencov do aliancie nazývanej Delianska liga, pretože jej pokladnica bola uložená na posvätnom ostrove Delos. Sparťania, hoci sa zúčastnili vojny, sa po nej stiahli do izolácie a umožnili Aténam vybudovať nespochybniteľnú námornú a obchodnú moc.

Achájska liga Upraviť

Achájska liga bola konfederáciou gréckych mestských štátov v Achájsku, území na severnom pobreží Peloponézu. Počiatočná konfederácia existovala v 5. až 4. storočí pred naším letopočtom. Achájska liga bola reformovaná na začiatku 3. storočia pred naším letopočtom a čoskoro sa rozšírila mimo jej Achájske srdce. Dominancia Ligy však nemala trvať dlho. Počas tretej macedónskej vojny (171 - 168 pred n. L.) Liga koketovala s myšlienkou spojenectva s Perzeom a Rimania ju potrestali tým, že si vzali niekoľko rukojemníkov na zaistenie dobrého správania, vrátane Polybia, helenistického historika, ktorý písal o vzostupe rímskej ríše. V roku 146 pred n. L. Liga prepukla v otvorenú vzburu proti rímskej nadvláde. Rimania pod vedením Luciusa Mummiusa porazili Achájcov, zbúrali Korint a rozpustili ligu. Lucius Mummius dostal prezývku Achaicus („dobyvateľ Achaja“) za svoju úlohu.

Staroveký Rím Upraviť

Staroveký Rím bol civilizáciou, ktorá vyrástla z malej poľnohospodárskej komunity založenej na Talianskom polostrove c. 9. storočia pred naším letopočtom do mohutnej ríše na rozhraní Stredozemného mora. Rímska civilizácia sa za svoju dvanásťstoročnú existenciu zmenila z monarchie na republiku založenú na kombinácii oligarchie a demokracie na autokratickú ríšu. Dominantou Západnej Európy a celej oblasti okolo Stredozemného mora sa stalo ovládnutie a asimilácia.

Púnske vojny Upraviť

Púnske vojny boli sériou troch vojen vedených medzi Rímom a Kartágom. Hlavnou príčinou púnskych vojen bol stret záujmov medzi existujúcou Kartáginskou ríšou a rozširujúcou sa rímskou sférou vplyvu. Rimania mali spočiatku záujem o expanziu cez Sicíliu, z ktorej časť ležala pod kartáginskou kontrolou. Na začiatku prvej púnskej vojny bolo Kartágo dominantnou mocnosťou Stredozemia s rozsiahlou námornou ríšou, pričom Rím bol rýchlo stúpajúcou mocnosťou v Taliansku. Do konca tretej vojny, po smrti stoviek tisíc vojakov z oboch strán, Rím dobyl Kartágsku ríšu a zničil mesto, čím sa stal najsilnejším štátom západného Stredomoria. S koncom macedónskych vojen-ktoré prebiehali súbežne s púnskymi vojnami-a porážkou seleukovského cisára Antiocha III. Veľkého v rímsko-sýrskej vojne (Apamejská zmluva, 188 pred Kr.) Vo východnom mori vyšiel Rím ako Dominantná stredomorská moc a najsilnejšie mesto v klasickom svete. Toto bol zlom, ktorý znamenal, že civilizácia starovekého Stredomoria prejde do moderného sveta prostredníctvom Európy namiesto Afriky.

Pred rímska Británia Upraviť

Coracle, malý plavák pre jedného cestujúceho, sa v Británii používa už od prvej rímskej invázie, ako uviedli útočníci. Corakly majú okrúhly alebo oválny tvar a sú vyrobené z dreveného rámu, na ktorý je natiahnutá koža a potom je dechtovaný, aby poskytol vodotesnosť. Keďže je obsluha taká ľahká, môže nosiť ľahké plavidlo cez rameno. Vďaka trupu bez kýlu sú schopné pracovať iba v palcoch vody. Prví ľudia z Walesu používali tieto lode na rybolov a ľahké cestovanie a aktualizované modely sa dodnes používajú na riekach Škótska a Walesu.

Raní Briti tiež používali svetovo rozšírené kanoe z dutých kmeňov stromov. Príklady týchto kanoe boli nájdené zakopané v močiaroch a bahenných brehoch riek v dĺžkach viac ako osem stôp. [49]

V roku 1992 bol zpod súčasného anglického Doveru objavený pozoruhodný archeologický nález s názvom „Doverská loď z doby bronzovej“. Predpokladá sa, že loď z doby bronzovej, ktorá je asi 9,5 metra dlhá × 2,3 metra, bola námorným plavidlom. Uhlíkové datovanie odhaľuje, že remeslo pochádzajúce približne z roku 1600 pred naším letopočtom môže byť najstaršou známou námornou loďou. Trup bol z polovičnej dubovej guľatiny a bočné panely z dubového dreva boli prešité tisovacími úväzmi. Väzby duba a tisu s rovnými zrnami sú v Anglicku dnes vyhynuté ako metóda stavby lodí. Rekonštrukcia v roku 1996 ukázala, že posádka medzi štyrmi a šestnástimi vodákmi mohla ľahko poháňať loď počas vetra Force 4 smerom hore na štyri uzly, ale maximálne na 5 uzlov (9 km/h). Loď mohla ľahko prepraviť značné množstvo nákladu a so silnou posádkou by bola schopná prejsť takmer tridsať námorných míľ za deň. [50]

Severná Európa Edit

The Seveřania, alebo „ľudia zo severu“, boli ľudia z južnej a strednej Škandinávie, ktorí od konca 8. storočia do 11. storočia zakladali štáty a sídla v severnej Európe. Vikingovia boli v ranom stredoveku bežným pojmom pre Norsemen, najmä v súvislosti s nájazdmi a kláštorným plienením, ktoré uskutočnili Norsemen vo Veľkej Británii a Írsku.

Leif Ericson bol islandský prieskumník, ktorý bol známy ako prvý Európan, ktorý pristál v Severnej Amerike (pravdepodobne v Newfoundlande v Kanade). Počas pobytu v Nórsku Leif Ericsson konvertoval na kresťanstvo, ako mnoho vtedajších Nórov. Odišiel aj do Nórska, aby slúžil nórskemu kráľovi Olafovi Tryggvasonovi. Keď sa vrátil do Grónska, kúpil čln Bjarni Herjólfsson a vydal sa preskúmať krajinu, ktorú Bjarni našiel (nachádza sa západne od Grónska), čo bol v skutočnosti Newfoundland v Kanade. The Sága Grónčanov hovorí, že Leif sa vydal okolo roku 1000, aby nasledoval Bjarniho cestu s 15 členmi posádky, ale išiel na sever. [51]

Región Nusantara Upraviť

Malajská rasa (ktorá zahŕňala jávsky ľud, sulawesiánov, filipínčanov a ďalšiu podskupinu z východnej Indonézie mínus ľudia z regiónu Irian) z Nusantary je už úspešným námorníkom najmenej 1500 rokov pred n. L. Počas tej éry distribúcia kapur Barus sa už dostali do starovekého Egypta. [52]: 1 Malajci vyvinuli tanja plachtu niekoľko stoviek rokov pred n. L., Čo ovplyvnilo Arabov, aby si vyrobili lateenovú plachtu, a Polynézanov, aby vyrobili plachtu z krabieho pazúra. Je to vynález svetového významu, pretože je schopný plaviť sa proti vetru. [53]: 102–103 Vyrábajú sa tiež ako jong plachta (nevyžiadaná súprava) a do 2. storočia si Číňania osvojili nevyžiadanú súpravu ako svoj preferovaný typ plachiet. [54]: 13 [55]: 191–192

Malajci sa tiež dostali na Madagaskar na začiatku 1. tisícročia nášho letopočtu a kolonizovali ho. [56] By the 8th century A.D., they already reached as far as Ghana, likely using the outrigger Borobudur ship and the perahu jong. [57] : 184 A Chinese record in 200 AD, describes the K'un-lun Po (meaning "ship/perahu od K'un-lun" - Either Java or Sumatra) as being capable of carrying 600-700 people and 260-1000 tons of cargo. [19] [20] [58] : 262 In 945-946 the Malays of Srivijaya or the Javanese of Medang [52] : 39 attacked east Africa, over 7000 km away. They arrived in the coast of Tanganyika and Mozambique with 1000 boats and attempted to take the citadel of Qanbaloh, though eventually failed. The reason of the attack is because that place had goods suitable for their country and for China, such as ivory, tortoise shells, panther skins, and ambergris, and also because they wanted black slaves from Bantu people (called Zeng alebo Zenj by Arabs, Jenggi by Javanese) who were strong and make good slaves. [59] : 110

Indický subkontinent Upraviť

In the Indian maritime history, the world's first tidal dock was built in phase II of Lothal [60] [61] during the Harappan civilisation near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast. Other ports were probably at Balakot and Dwarka. However, it is probable that many small-scale ports, and not massive ports, were used for the Harappan maritime trade. [62] Ships from the harbour at these ancient port cities established trade with Mesopotamia, [63] where the Indus Valley was known as Meluhha.

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's Prime Minister Kautilya's Arthashastra devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships) [1] . The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Buddhist text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term, Samudrasamyanam.

The Maritime history of Kalinga (now Odisha) is an important highlight of the traditions of Indian maritime history as it was influential in establishing trading links with Southeast Asia along the Maritime Silk Road. The people of this region of eastern India along the coast of the Bay of Bengal sailed up and down the Indian coast, and travelled to Indo China and throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, introducing elements of their culture to the people with whom they traded. The 6th century Manjusrimulakalpa mentions the Bay of Bengal as 'Kalingodra' and historically the Bay of Bengal has been called 'Kalinga Sagara' (both Kalingodra and Kalinga Sagara mean Kalinga Sea), indicating the importance of Kalinga in the maritime trade. [64]

The Tamil Chola Empire possessed the largest naval force of Indian subcontinent to have until modern times and represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. [65] [66] Chola Emperor Rajendra Chola had established his rule extending up from India (coramandal coast or present day coast of southern part of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu [67] ) to South East Asia with his impressive Chola Navy. Rajendra Chola annexed during his overseas conquests Sri Lanka, Maldives, islands of Andaman, Nicobar, Lakshadweep, parts of the Malay Peninsula and Indonesian archipelago. Through conquest of the Srivijaya Empire, the Cholas secured the sea trade road to China. [68]

Čína Upraviť

In ancient China, during the Spring and Autumn period (722 BC–481 BC), large rectangular-based barge-like ships with layered decks and cabins with ramparts acted as floating fortresses on wide rivers and lakes. [69] These were called 'castle ships' ('lou chuan'), yet there were 4 other ship types known in that period, including a ramming vessel. [69] During the short-lived Qin Dynasty (221 BC-207 BC) the Chinese sailed south into the South China Sea during their invasion of Annam, modern Vietnam.

During the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD), a ship with a stern-mounted steering rudder along with masts and sails was innovated, known as the junk in Western terminology. [70] The Chinese had been sailing through the Indian Ocean since the 2nd century BC, with their travels to Kanchipuram in India. [71] [72] This was followed up by many recorded maritime travelers following the same route to India, including Faxian, Zhiyan, Tanwujie, etc. [73] Like in the Western tradition, the earlier Zhou Dynasty Chinese also made use of the floating pontoon bridge, which became a valuable means to blockade the entire Yangtze River during Gongsun Shu's rebellion against the re-established Han government in 33 AD. [74] Although first described in ancient Ptolemaic Egypt, the Song Dynasty scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095) was the first to describe the use of the drydock system in China to repair boats out of water. [75] The canal pound lock was invented in China during the previous century, while Shen Kuo wrote of its effectiveness in his day, writing that ships no longer had the grievances of the old flash lock design and no longer had to be hauled over long distances (meaning heavier ships with heavier cargo of goods could traverse the waterways of China). [76] There were many other improvements to nautical technology during the Song period as well, including crossbeams bracing the ribs of ships to strengthen them, rudders that could be raised or lowered to allow ships to travel in a wider range of water depths, and the teeth of anchors arranged circularly instead of in one direction, "making them more reliable". [77]

Although there were numerous naval battles beforehand, China's first permanent standing navy was established in 1132 during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). [78] Gunpowder warfare at sea was also first known in China, with battles such as the Battle of Caishi and the Battle of Tangdao on the Yangtze River in 1161 AD during the Jin–Song wars. One of the most important books of medieval maritime literature was Zhu Yu's Pingzhou Table Talks of 1119 AD. Although the Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095) was the first to describe the magnetic-needle compass, Zhu Yu's book was the first to specify its use for navigation at sea. Zhu Yu's book also described watertight bulkhead compartments in the hull of Chinese ships, which prevented sinking when heavily damaged in one compartment. [79] Although the drydock was known, Zhu Yu wrote of expert divers who were often used to repair boats that were damaged and still submersed in water. Divers in China continued to have a maritime significance, as the later Ming Dynasty author Song Yingxing (1587–1666) wrote about pearl divers who used snorkeling gear (a watertight leather face mask and breathing tube secured with tin rings) to breathe underwater while tied by the waist to the ship in order to be secure while hunting for pearls. [80]

Japonsko Upraviť

Japan had a navy by at least the 6th century, with their invasions and involvement in political alliances during the Three Kingdoms of Korea. A joint alliance between the Korean Silla Kingdom and the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) heavily defeated the Japanese and their Korean allies of Baekje in the Battle of Baekgang on August 27 to August 28 of the year 663 AD. This decisive victory expelled the Japanese force from Korea and allowed the Tang and Silla to conquer Goguryeo.


10 Most Important Archaeological Finds in Greece of the Last Decade

Greece has a countless amount of ruins to visit and learn about. However, there are some discoveries that have occurred in the last decade that have forever changed history as we know it today.
Here’s a look at the 10 most important archaeological finds in Greece of the last ten years.
1. Ancient Minoan Tomb, Crete – 2018
A farmer discovered a rare tombstone from late Minoan III period on Crete in August, 2018.
A farmer in Kentri Ierapetra on Crete attempted to park his vehicle in the shade of an olive tree and by pure chance, the over-irrigated dirt under his vehicle revealed a carved tombstone of the Late Minoan III period.
In the grave, that had not been ransacked, archaeologists discovered two large Larnaka Late Minoan period embossed depictions that are in excellent condition.
In addition, there were two skeletons found in the graves and about 24 vases with colored embossings and depictions.
This tomb is a rare find and archaeologists hope to find new evidence of the Late Minoan period in the area.
2. An Ancient Mall, Argilos – 2013
While archaeologists were further excavating at the site of the ancient city of Argilos in 2013, they stumbled upon its portico, or a group of shops – something like a modern-day mall.
This ancient strip mall had different qualities than those experts have come across in the past, making it a rare find.
Unlike other porticoes discovered from antiquity, this one was made up of different rooms, suggesting that each shop owner constructed his own place of business.
The ancient mall dates back to some 2,500 years ago, making it the oldest portico ever found in northern Greece.
3. Lost Greek City Dating Back 2,500 Years, Vlochos – 2016
Just five hours north of Athens archaeologists discovered a lost ancient Greek city dating back some 2,500 years.
The discovery of ancient ruins on the hillside where the city sits is nothing new to archaeologists, who have dismissed them in the past as nothing more than part of an irrelevant settlement that once existed years ago.
However, researchers from the University of Gothenburg and the University of Bournemouth decided to take a closer look at the ruins in 2016 and discovered a lost ancient city near the village of Vlochos.
So far since they started exploring the site back in September, 2016, the team has uncovered everything from the remains of towers and city walls to ancient pottery and coins that date back as far as 500 BC.
4. 4,000-year-old Pyramid with Plumbing System – 2018
On the Greek island of Keros there is an archaeological site which although everyone was familiar with, had no idea what treasures lay inside.
High up above the Aegean Sea some 4,000 years ago, the residents on Keros carved a cone-shaped piece of the coast line into terraces to resemble a stepped pyramid.
In 2018, researchers looked inside this carved pyramid and were surprised to see that there was a sophisticated system of drainage tunnels dating back a full millennium.
Experts say that the pyramid’s plumbing could have been used to provide fresh water or removed sewage.
5. The Underwater Ruins of Ancient Naval Bases at Piraeus Harbor – 2010
In 2010, a local fisherman guided a group of archaeologists to his favorite fishing spot that he frequented as a child. He used to sit on ancient columns peeking out from the sea in the northern side of Mounichia in Piraeus.
It turned out that the columns were part of the ruins of an ancient naval base dating back as far as 480 BC.
The ruins of the ancient Greek naval bases played a pivotal role in defeating the Persian Empire in the historical Battle of Salamis, and since its initial discovery in 2010, many new discoveries around the ruins have come to light.
Exploration of the partially sunken port have uncovered sunken ship-sheds from underwater excavations undertaken by Zea Harbor Project.
6. Knossos, the Capital of Minoan Civilization Offers More Treasures – 2016
The newest discoveries on Crete at the site of the ancient city of Knossos suggest that the capital of the Minoan Civilization was much more influential and larger than previously thought.
Archaeologists already knew that Knossos was Europe’s oldest city and ruled over the massive trade empire during the Bronze age, however, new evidence suggests that the Minoans may have actually survived into the Iron Age.
Previously thought to have perished around 1200 BC after the volcanic eruption of Thera on Santorini, new artifacts discovered by a team led by a University of Cincinnati assistant professor of classics, Antonis Kotsonas, suggests otherwise.
Nearby burial sites that have recently been excavated revealed that the Minoans were still in the trading business in the region long after 1200 BC and that the actual area of Knossos may have been much bigger than originally thought due to the new discoveries.
7. Significant Finds from Underwater Excavation at Delos – 2017
The remains of ancient coastal structures, a port, a large number of shipwrecks dating back to various eras and significant smaller finds, were found in underwater archaeological excavations conducted by the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities at the island of Delos from May 2 until May 20, 2017.
The discover confirmed to experts that the island of Delos was an important trading base and an important maritime trade route that played a crucial role in linking the east and west Mediterranean in ancient times.
Archaeologists carried out an in-depth investigation of the ancient breakwater that protected the island’s central port in antiquity from the strong northwestern winds, which is now underwater because the sea level has risen by two meters since that time.
Other finds included the remains of walls and a fallen colonnade, the remains of a later Hellenistic era shipwreck carrying amphorae of oil and wine from Italy and the western Mediterranean, as well as another two shipwrecks from the same era off the southern tip of Delos and at Rineia, in Fylladi Bay.
8. Ancient Silver Mine of Lavrio – 2009

Located in the Sounio National Park in a general area called Agrileza (near the village of Agios Konstadinos), the ruins of the mines and workshops of Lavrios Ancient Silver Mines were under excavation until as recently as 2009.
In particular, the Lavrio silver mine was a source of wealth and power to ancient Athens and is interconnected with the rise and fall of the Athenian Empire, from 5th – 4th century BC.
The importance of geology in Greece dates back to the Classical Era when mines filled with silver, gold, iron and other natural ores contributed to the formation of the ancient Greek civilization.
In fact, many of the monuments of Athens (Parthenon, great walls of Athens, statues and majority of the temples) were built with money that was revenue from mines.
9. Marble Slab with Ancient Inscription, Evia – 2018
In August, 2018, a slab of marble with an ancient inscription was discovered hidden under stones along a dirt path.
This priceless piece of history was almost lost forever, as police confiscated it wrapped in a plastic bag, most likely ready to be sold on the black market.
The slab is important and valuable, experts say. It is believed that a rendering of the text could provide important information about life in ancient Greece.
The piece of marble is 50 x 22 cm and has an ancient Greek inscription carved into it, along with a decoration of Acanthous, which is from the Hellenistic or early Roman era.
10. Ancient Cave Art Dating back to the ice Age, Crete – 2018
In the Asphendou cave in Crete — known for its petroglyphs — archaeologists discovered what is believed to be the earliest Greek art, dating back to the last Ice Age.
The artworks, 37 deer engravings about 5 centimeters long, portray an extinct animal known as the dwarf deer, Candiacervus ropalophorus.
The Candiacervus ropalophorus became extinct more than 11,000 years ago.
They once roamed not far from the Asphendou in caves on the north coast of Crete about 11,000 years ago, according to specimens found by scientists.


Greece's Top Ten Ancient Finds of the Last Decade


Greece has countless ruins to visit and historical sites to explore, all of which are priceless archaeological treasures. However, some discoveries made in the last decade are so spectacular that they have forever changed our understanding of history.
Here’s a look at some of the most important archaeological finds in Greece during the last ten years.

“The Abduction of Persephone by Hades”, Amphipolis Tomb mosaic
In 2012 Greek archaeologists unearthed a large tomb deep within Kasta Hill, the largest burial mound in Greece, northeast of Amphipolis.
The tomb is dated back to the late 4th century BC, sometime during the period after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.
It is not yet known who is buried in the tomb. Initial public speculation that it could be the tomb of Alexander the Great, due to its size and the estimated cost of construction, was dismissed by experts. All known historical records mention Alexandria, Egypt as the final resting place of Alexander the Great, although he died in Baghdad.
It has been suggested that the occupant of the splendidly-decorated Amphipolis tomb could either be a wealthy Macedonian noble or a member of the Macedonian royal family.
There are two sphinxes just outside the entrance to the tomb. Two of the columns supporting the roof in the first section are in the form of Caryatids, in the style of the 4th century BC.
The excavation revealed a breathtakingly beautiful pebble mosaic showing the abduction of Persephone by Hades. The mosaic is directly behind the Caryatids and in front of the Macedonian-marble door leading to the “third” chamber.
2. Thessaloniki treasures, discovered in 2010

A 15-year subway project in Greece’s northern metropolis has shed light on previously-unknown facets of daily life in the history of the 2,300-year-old city.
The excavation has uncovered Thessaloniki’s central sixth-century highway, as well as a marble plaza, a fountain and a headless statue of Aphrodite.
Thousands of priceless ancient finds such as coins, mosaics and statues have also been uncovered.
Most of the finds are from the Byzantine era. However, archaeologists say as excavations continue, new finds from the Roman era are coming to the surface. They hope to discover artifacts or buildings from the time Thessaloniki was founded, in the era of Cassander, sometime around 300 BC.
3. Long-lost city of ancient Tenea resurfaces – 2018

The discovery of the long-lost city of Ancient Tenea is considered among the fifteen largest art historical discoveries of 2018.
Greek archaeologists discovered jewelry, dozens of coins and remnants of a housing settlement, affirming the location of the ancient city thought to have been founded by survivors of the Trojan War in the 12th or 13th century BCE.
Until last year, the location of Tenea had been based mainly on historical references, and the spectacular find finally proved the existence and exact location of the city.
The most recent excavation unearthed seven graves dating to the Roman era and the Hellenistic period, and, for the first time, remnants of a settlement.
4. Oldest extract of Homer’s Odyssey, found in 2018

A team of Greek and German researchers found what they believe to be the oldest known extract of Homer’s epic poem “The Odyssey” on an engraved clay plaque in ancient Olympia, the birthplace of the Olympic Games.
The extract comprises thirteen verses from the Odyssey’s 󈫾th Rhapsody”, where the hero Odysseus addresses his lifelong friend Eumaeus. Preliminary estimates date the finding to the Roman era, probably before the third century AD.
The exact date still needs to be confirmed, but the plaque was still “a great archaeological, epigraphic, literary and historical exhibit,” according to the Greek Ministry of Culture.
“The Odyssey”, 12,109 lines of poetry attributed to the ancient Greek poet Homer, tells the epic story of Odysseus, the king of Ithaca, who wanders for 10 years trying to get home after the fall of Troy.
5. Oldest intact shipwreck in the world, discovered in 2018
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A Greek merchant ship dating back more than 2,400 years was discovered lying upright in the sea off the Bulgarian coast.
The 23m (75 foot) wooden ship, found in the Black Sea by an Anglo-Bulgarian team, was hailed as officially the world’s oldest known intact shipwreck.
Researchers were stunned to find the merchant vessel closely resembled in design a ship which decorated ancient Greek wine vases.
The rudder, rowing benches and even the contents of its hold remain intact. While older shipwrecks have been discovered, what sets this one apart is its incredible state of preservation. This is because the seawater in that area contains almost no oxygen at that depth.
6. Shackled remains, unearthed in 2016

At least 80 skeletons lie in a mass grave in an ancient Greek cemetery, their wrists clamped by iron shackles.They are the victims, say archaeologists, of a mass execution. But who they were, how they got there and why they appear to have been buried with a measure of respect – that all remains a mystery.
They were found in an area of the Falyron Delta necropolis. This is a large ancient cemetery which was unearthed during the construction of a national opera house and library between downtown Athens and the port of Piraeus.
The cemetery dates from between the eighth and fifth centuries BC.
One of the strongest hypotheses is that the executed men had been supporters of Cylon, an Athenian noble and Olympic champion who staged an attempted coup in Athens in 632 BC with the help of his father-in–law, the tyrant of Megara.

7. The ancient Marketplace of Argilos, excavated in 2013
While archaeologists were further excavating the site of the ancient city of Argilos, northern Greece, in 2013, they stumbled upon its “portico”, or a group of shops – something like a modern-day mall.
This ancient marketplace had different qualities than those experts have come across in the past, making it a rare find.
Unlike other porticoes discovered from antiquity, this one was made up of different rooms, suggesting that each shop owner constructed his own place of business.
The ancient marketplace dates back to some 2,500 years ago, making it the oldest portico ever found in northern Greece.
8. Ancient Naval Base at Piraeus Harbor, discovered in 2010
In 2010, a local fisherman guided a group of archaeologists to his favorite fishing spot which he had frequented as a child. He told them he used to sit on ancient columns peeking out from the sea in the northern side of Mounichia in the port of Piraeus.
It turned out that the columns were part of the ruins of an ancient naval base dating back as far as 480 BC.
The ancient Greek naval base played a pivotal role in defeating the Persian Empire in the historical Battle of Salamis, and since its initial discovery in 2010, many new discoveries around the ruins have come to light.
Exploration of the partially-sunken port undertaken by the “Zea Harbor Project” have uncovered ancient boat sheds and other artifacts of ancient Piraeus.
9. 4,000-year-old Pyramid with Plumbing System, 2018
The archaeological site on the Greek island of Keros, consisting of a pyramid-shaped mountain, was already familiar to all yet no one had any idea what treasures lay inside the pyramid until last year.
High up above the Aegean Sea some 4,000 years ago, the residents of Keros Island carved a cone-shaped mountain along the coast line into terraces resembling a stepped pyramid.
In 2018, researchers looked inside the carved pyramid and were astounded to discover that there was a sophisticated system of drainage tunnels which were one millennium old.
Experts say that the pyramid’s plumbing could have been used to provide fresh water, or may have been used to remove sewage.

10. Underwater treasures of Delos, discovered in 2017
The remains of ancient coastal structures, a port, and a large number of shipwrecks from different eras were found in underwater archaeological excavations conducted by the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities at the island of Delos. Significant smaller finds were also discovered at the dig two years ago.
The discovery confirmed to experts that the island of Delos was an important trading base along a strategic maritime trade route. The island played a crucial role in linking the eastern and western Mediterranean in ancient times.
Other finds included the remains of walls and a fallen colonnade, as well as the remains of a later Hellenistic-era shipwreck carrying amphorae of oil and wine from Italy and the western Mediterranean.
Two additional shipwrecks from the same era were also discovered off the southern tip of Delos and at Rineia, in Fylladi Bay.


Ancient Naval Base for Epic Greek Battle Found

Greek archaeologists have found the ancient military harbor of the island of Salamis — the very physical space from which the largest and most decisive naval battle ever fought in antiquity was launched.

The ancient harbor was identified as being located in the small and well-protected Bay of Ambelaki, in the eastern part of the Greek island, during an archaeological search by a team of 20 experts from two Greek universities — the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities and the Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology — according the Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports.

"This is the first systematic underwater reconnaissance to be initiated by Greek institutions in a severely polluted marine environment, yet in a crucial area of historical importance," the ministry said. [10 Epic Battles That Changed History]

The survey identified remains of port structures, fortifications and other buildings dating from the Classical period (from the fifth to fourth centuries B.C.) and Hellenistic period, on all three sides — north, west and south — of the bay. (The beginning of the Hellenistic period is usually marked by the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.)

Such features are only visible at low tides at certain times of the year.

"The fortified northwestern part of the bay is the prime evidence for the identification of that special 'closed area' as the main military zone of the harbor of Salamis, certainly an Athenian territory in Classical times," Yannos Lolos, professor of archaeology at the University of Ioannina and president of the Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology, told Live Science.

Indeed, the area is defined on the south by an impressive long wall, or jetty, which runs for about 200 feet (160 meters) and ends in a strong round tower similar to those found in other fortified harbors. An enormous stone structure called a mole extends for 160 feet (50 m) along the east side of this "main military zone."

Other submerged remains on the south side of the bay include breakwaters, a 130-foot-long (40 m) mole and a 100-foot-long (30 m) wall with an attached square, tower-like structure.

"This evidence, supplemented by the information from ancient historical and literary sources, leaves no doubt about the role of the bay as the main assembly and launching point of the Greek fleet in close proximity to the theater of the sea battle in the straits," Lolos said.

According to Greek historian Herodotus, 378 Greek triremes (so called because they were propelled by three tiers of oarsmen) rowed, fought and defeated the much larger invading Persian fleet led by King Xerxes.

The epic battle was won after the Athenian politician and general Themistocles lured the Persian fleet into the narrow straits that separate the Greek mainland from Salamis.

"It is difficult to predict what would have happened if the Greeks had lost at Salamis, but it is clear that a Persian victory would have had immense consequences, not only for Greece, but also for the rest of Europe," University of Copenhagen archaeologist Bjørn Lovén told Live Science.

The Greek victory, Lovén noted, led directly to the Golden Age of Athens — a century that saw explosive developments in democratic government, philosophy, medicine, the natural sciences, architecture, visual arts, drama and literature.

"Had the Persians won, I truly doubt that we would have seen the effects that these amazing cultural and social developments have had on us today," Lovén said.

Last year, Lovén shed more light on that decisive battle when he found underwater remains of a naval base in Mounichia Harbor in the city of Piraeus. Along with massive fortifications, his team found several ship sheds that likely housed the triremes that were deployed in Salamis.

"The new discovery is clearly very important. I find it fascinating that the harbor site where the allied Greek fleet was stationed before the battle has been defined," Lovén said.

The search in the waters of the historical Bay of Ambelaki will continue until 2018, Lolos said.

Although it's unlikely that a trireme — the holy grail of underwater archaeology — will be found, Lolos is confident that the newly built underwater archaeological map of the area will lead to new discoveries.


The ram was a naval weapon in the Greek/Roman antiquity and was used in such naval battles as Salamis [1] and Actium. Naval warfare in the Mediterranean rarely used sails, and the use of rams specifically required oarsmen rather than sails in order to maneuver with accuracy and speed, and particularly to reverse the movement of a ramming ship to disentangle it from its sinking victim, lest it be pulled down when its victim sank. The Athenians were especially known for their diekplous and periplous tactics that disabled enemy ships with speed and ramming techniques. [2]

Rams were first recorded in use at the battle of Alalia in 535 BC. [3] There is evidence available to suggest that it existed much earlier, probably even before the 8th century BC. They appear first on stylized images found on Greek pottery and jewelry and on Assyrian reliefs and paintings. [4] The ram most likely evolved from cutwaters, structures designed to support the keel-stem joint and allow for greater speed and dynamism in the water. [5]

Many other historical vessels were used as rams, such as the Korean Turtle ship.

The Athlit ram Edit

The Athlit ram, found in 1980 off the coast of Israel near Atlit, is an example of an ancient ram. Carbon 14 dating of timber remnants date it to between 530 BC and 270 BC. [6]

Rams were thought to be one of the main weapons of war galleys after c. 700 BC, and the Athlit ram's construction implies advanced technology that was developed over a long period of time. Heavy timbers were shaped and attached to the hull, and then the bronze ram was created to fit around the timbers for added strength. The evidence for this lies in the remnants of timbers found inside the Athlit ram when it was discovered. The blunt edge of the ram and the patterned protrusion were intended to break open the seams of the target ship while at the same time dispersing the force of impact on the attacking ship to prevent the ram from twisting off and damaging the attacking ship. It was also less likely to become stuck in the hull of its target. [7]

The Athlit ram consists of a single bronze casting weighing 465 kilograms (1,025 lb). [6] It is 226 centimetres (89 in) long with a maximum width of 76 centimetres (30 in) and a maximum height of 96 centimetres (38 in). The bronze that makes up the shell is a high-quality alloy containing 9.78% tin with traces of lead and other elements. The shell was cast as a single piece to perfectly fit the timbers it protects. [8] The casting of an object as large as the Athlit ram was a complicated operation at the time, and would have been a considerable expense in the construction of a war galley.

The ram comprises three sections – the driving centre, the bottom plate, and the cowl. The driving centre is 30 centimetres (12 in) long and 76 centimetres (30 in) wide. [9] This is the area of the ram that makes contact with enemy vessels in battle. The front wall of the head of the ram has the thickest layer of casting at 6.8 centimetres (2.7 in) for extra protection during battle. The surface of the ram was decorated with several symbols. [10] On both sides, there is an eagle head, a helmet, and an eight-point star. These symbols are similar in dimension, but contain many inconsistencies with each other, suggesting they were made from the same mold. [9] The ram has a handle depicting a tri-form thunderbolt. [9] It is attached with mortise and tenon joints and strengthened with 15-millimetre (0.6 in) oak pegs. The wales and the ramming timber are designed to interlock for extra strength. The bottom of the ram features a mortise cut into the ramming timber to fit the most forward end of the keel which was formed into a 4-centimetre (1.6 in) thick and 10-centimetre (3.9 in) long tenon. [10]

A key element in the design and construction of a ramming vessel is the ability to stop its forward progress and reverse course, the better to allow the rammed ship to sink without her crew boarding the ramming vessel. As navies became more dependent on sailing ships, which do neither well, [11] rams were generally discarded, particularly as gunpowder increased the range at which ships could effectively attack one another. Only a few instances of non-accidental ramming are recorded from the Age of Sail. [ potrebná citácia ]

With the development of steam propulsion, the speed, power and maneuverability it allowed again enabled the use of the ship's hull, which could be clad in iron, as an offensive weapon. As early as 1840, the French admiral Nicolas Hippolyte Labrousse proposed building a ram steamship, and by 1860, Dupuy de Lôme had designed an ironclad with a ram. [12] The quick success [13] of CSS Virgínia's ramming attack on USS Cumberland at the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862 attracted much attention and caused many navies to re-think the ram. The first coastal battleship, France's Taureau, was built in 1863, for the purpose of attacking warships at anchor or in narrow straits, and was armed with a ram. [14] Many ironclad ships were designed specifically to ram opponents in ships of this type, the armour belt was extended forward to brace both sides of the ram to increase structural integrity. Several wooden steamships were purpose-built as rams, or converted from existing commercial vessels, such as General Price. [ potrebná citácia ]

The theory behind the revival of the weapon derived from the fact that, in the period around 1860, armour held superiority over the ship-mounted cannon. It was believed that an armoured warship could not be seriously damaged by the naval artillery in existence at the time, even at close range. To achieve a decisive result in a naval engagement, therefore, alternative methods of action were believed to be necessary. As it followed, from the same belief, that a ship armed with a ram could not be seriously damaged by the gunfire of its intended victim, the ram became, for a brief period, the main armament of many battleships. It was observed that the guns placed on the Taureau were there "with the sole function of preparing the way for the ram." [15]

During the American Civil War, both Union and Confederate forces employed ram ships. In 1862, Charles Ellet, Jr. was deployed directly by the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, to build the United States Ram Fleet, a fleet of ram ships to counter the Confederate River Defense Fleet controlling the Mississippi River. Ellet purchased nine steam powered paddle boats and retrofit them for service as ram ships. The ram ships played an important part in the Union victory during the First Battle of Memphis and helped the Union forces wrest control of the Mississippi River from the Confederate forces. [16]

The frequent use of ramming as a tactic in the Battle of Lissa and, to a lesser extent, at the Battle of Iquique also led to many late 19th-century naval designers equipping their warships with ram bows. This only really aggravated a number of incidents of ships being sunk by their squadron-mates in accidental collisions as ramming never featured as a viable battle tactic again. The fixation on ramming may also have inhibited the development of gunnery.

Toward the end of the 19th century, the breech-loading cannon could effectively hit enemy ships at several thousand yards range, and the ineffectiveness in battle of the ram became clear ships were no longer fitted with them. Battleships and cruisers instead had inverted bows which superficially resembled rams. These were not, however, reinforced, and were fitted in order to improve ship speed by increasing the waterline length. They also served to decrease the length of forecastle that was exposed to muzzle flash when the guns were fired directly ahead.

No other ironclad was ever sunk by wartime ramming by an enemy ship, although the ram was regarded by all major navies for some 30 years as primary battleship armament. A number of ships were, however, rammed in peacetime by ships of their own navy. The most serious of these same-navy collisions in terms of loss of life was the collision between HMS Victoria a HMS Camperdown, which took place in the Mediterranean in 1893. [ potrebná citácia ] However, that death toll was dwarfed by the 562 deaths (plus two rescuers) ensuing from the sinking of the passenger liner SS Utopia, which accidentally collided with the ram bow of the anchored HMS Anson in 1891. [17]

Twentieth century Edit

During both world wars, there were several occasions when surfaced submarines were rammed and sunk by surface ships. If successful, such an attack could cut the submarine in two, such as the 1914 sinking of U-15 by HMS Birmingham. The only battleship-over-submarine victory in history occurred during World War I, when the battleship HMS Dreadnought rammed and sank U-boat U-29. Submarines were strongly built to resist water pressure at depth, so the ramming ship could be badly damaged by the attack. This happened to HMS Víla, which foundered in 1918, after sinking the U-boat UC-75. In March 1943, the destroyer HMS Kombajn was badly damaged after ramming the German submarine U-444. She was sunk by another U-boat the next day as she sat helpless, without working engines. [18]

Ramming attacks during the Second World War included the ramming of U405 spoločnosťou USS Borie. The U-boat was not critically damaged and there followed a small-arms battle between the vessels as they were locked together and the U-boat was too close for Borie to bring her main guns to bear. The submarine eventually sank but Borie was too badly damaged by the ramming to be salvaged, so she was abandoned and deliberately sunk by Allied forces.

Other submarines sunk by ramming included U-100, U-224, U-655, [19] the Italian submarines Tembien [20] and Cobalto, [21] the Japanese submarine I-1 [22] and the Royal Navy submarine HMS Cachalot. The Finnish submarine Vetehinen herself rammed and sank Soviet submarine ShCh-305 on 5 November 1942.

As ramming was the only weapon available to unarmed merchant ships, there were occasions when they attempted to ram U-boats. The British Admiralty in the First World War expected that some merchant captains might try to ram U-boats as much as twice the size of their own vessel and capable of much greater speed, if the situation favoured such a tactic. [23] In 1915, SS Brussels attempted, but failed, to ram U-33. Her captain, Charles Fryatt, was captured by the Germans a year later. He was court-martialled and executed as they considered his act to be that of a franc-tireur. The French steamer Molière sank the U-boat UC-36 in 1917. [24] An old British paddle steamer, SS Mona's Queen, rammed and sank a U-boat in February 1917. [25] In May 1918 SM UC-78 was sunk by the steamer Queen Alexandra, [26] and RMS Olympijské rammed and sank U-103. [27]

During World War II, U-46 was struck by the British tanker SS Ensis. The submarine survived the ramming but had to return to port for repair. [28] The Italian merchant ship Antonietta Costa rammed and sank submarine HMS Rainbow while on a convoy from Bari to Durazzo. [29] Accidental ramming can also occur during wartime, such as in October 1942 when, during escort duty, the light cruiser HMS Curacoa was accidentally sliced in half and sunk by the significantly heavier (15x) ocean liner RMS Kráľovná Mária, with the loss of 337 men.

On August 2, 1943, IJN Destroyer Amagiri rammed and sank a smaller, faster, and more maneuverable, [30] USN PT boat commanded by LtJG John F. Kennedy. [31]

Explosive motor boats which usually detonated after ramming their target were employed by the Italian and the Japanese navies in WWII. Italian type MTM boats rammed and crippled the cruiser HMS York and a Norwegian tanker at Suda Bay in 1941, while Shinyo suicide boats sank a number of US amphibious craft in the Pacific Theatre of operations in 1945.

Late in the century, ramming by major warships became the tactic of choice during the Cod Wars conflict between the Icelandic Coast Guard and the Royal Navy. [32] At least 15 British frigates, five Icelandic patrol boats and one British supply ship were damaged by ramming between 1975 and 1976. [33]

Towing tests of warships found that a below-water ram reduced resistance through the water, which led to the development of a non-reinforced bulbous bow where rams were formerly fitted. [34]

The torpedo ram is a hybrid torpedo boat combining a ram with torpedo tubes. Incorporating design elements from the cruiser and the monitor, it was intended to provide a small and inexpensive weapon systems for coastal defence and other littoral combat.

Like monitors, torpedo rams operated with very little freeboard, sometimes with only inches of hull rising above the water, exposing only their funnels and turrets to direct enemy fire. They were equipped with torpedoes and guns in turrets. Early designs incorporated a spar torpedo that could be extended from the bow and detonated by ramming a target. Later designs used tube-launched self-propelled torpedoes, but retained the concept of ramming, resulting in designs like HMS Polyfémus, which had five torpedo tubes, two each port and starboard and one mounted in the centre of her reinforced ram bow.

Rams have also been used on civilian vessels. The Seattle fireboat Duwamish, built in 1909, was designed to ram burning wooden vessels, as a last resort. [35]


Pozri si video: Approach, landing u0026 taxi at Athens ATH - cockpit (August 2022).