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Wampanoag I ScFr - história

Wampanoag I ScFr - história

Wampanoag I

(ScFr: d. 4215; 1,355 '; b. 45'2 "; dr. 19'; s. 18 k .; a. 10 8" sb., 2 100-pdr., 2 24-pdr. How ., 2 12-pdr. How., 1 60-par. R. Pivt .; cl. Wampanoag)

Wampanoag - skrutkovacia fregata - bol položený 3. augusta 1863 v New York Navy Yard, NY; zahájená 15. decembra 1864, sponzorovaná slečnou Caseovou, dcérou kpt. Augusta Ludlowa Caseho, druhého velenia námorného dvora; a poverený 17. septembra 1867 veliteľom kapitán J. W. A. ​​Nicholson.

Útoky spoločností CSS Alabama a CSS Florida postavených v anglických lodeniciach dosiahli bod v roku 1863, kde boli vážne ohrozené pokračujúce mierové vzťahy medzi Spojenými štátmi a Veľkou Britániou. V dôsledku toho Kongres reagoval schválením výstavby novej triedy skrutkových fregát ako súčasti zákona o námornom obstarávaní z toho roku. Tieto plavidlá, navrhnuté ako najrýchlejšie na svete, boli určené na použitie v operáciách typu hit-and-run proti britským prístavom a obchodu v prípade vojny. Wampanoag bola vedúcou loďou tejto triedy.

Wampanoag obsahoval množstvo konštrukčných prvkov, ktoré v americkej námornej konštrukcii nemajú obdobu. Jej trup - navrhnutý architektom plachetnice B. F. Delano - bol neobvykle dlhý a zúžený vzhľadom na nosník plavidla. Jej stroje vyvinuté kontroverzným námorným inžinierom B. Isherwoodom boli jedinečné svojim prevodovým parným strojom, v ktorom bolo pomaly sa pohybujúce strojné zariadenie spojené s rýchlo sa pohybujúcim hnacím ústrojenstvom. Obrovská diskusia spôsobená týmto návrhom oddialila výstavbu a zabránila dokončeniu Wampanoagu včas, aby slúžil v občianskej vojne.

Skrutková fregata nakoniec odišla z New Yorku na námorné skúšky 7. februára 1868. Dňa 11. februára zahájila rýchlostné skúšky a vybiehala v drsnom počasí z Barnegat Light, New Jersey, na Tybee Island, Georgia. Prešla vzdialenosť 728 stanov. míle za 38 hodín pri priemernej trvalej rýchlosti 16,6 uzla, pričom v jednom bode to bolo 17,75 uzla. Ďalšie námorné plavidlo, americký krížnik Charleston, sa nevyrovnávalo tomuto rekordu 21 rokov.

Od 22. februára 1868 do 8. apríla bol Wampanoag nasadený ako vlajková loď severoatlantickej flotily. 6. mája 1868 bola vyradená z prevádzky na newyorskom námornom dvore. Wampanoag bol 15. mája 1869 premenovaný na Floridu.

Spor vyvolaný nekonvenčným dizajnom fregaty dosiahol vrchol v roku 1869, keď námorná komisia plavidlo preskúmala a odsúdila. Kontraadmirál R. M. Goldsborough, komodor Charles S. Boggs a inžinieri E. D. Robie, John W. Moore a Isaac Newton považovali loď za neprijateľnú pre aktívnu službu v námorníctve. Sťažovali sa na jej neobvykle veľké strojové priestory, ťažkú ​​spotrebu uhlia a zistili najmä chybu v jej úzkej šírke vzhľadom na dĺžku. Komisia uviedla, že to spôsobilo nadmerné valenie a namáhanie plavidla. Výsledkom bolo, že Florida zostala v New Yorku obyčajná päť rokov a potom 6. marca 1874 odletela do New London v štáte Connecticut, aby sa stala prijímajúcou a skladovacou loďou na tamojšej námornej stanici.

Florida zostala v Novom Londýne v hnilobe až do februára 1886. Bola predaná v New Yorku 27. februára 1886 Edwinovi LeBarsovi.


Jednotky SCFR reagujú na požiar neskorej štruktúry

Tesne pred 21. hodinou v stredu 19. mája boli jednotky s Hasičským a záchranným zborom Stafford County (SCFR) vyslané kvôli ohlásenému požiaru stavby v bloku 00 kruhu Red Bud Circle pri ulici Embrey Mill Road. Prvé prichádzajúce jednotky označené na mieste necelých piatich minút neskôr hlásili silný dym z pridruženej garáže rodinného domu. V celom sídle boli hlásené aj dymové podmienky.

V tom čase bývalo v rezidencii osem obyvateľov, z ktorých tam bývalo šesť. Všetci sa dokázali evakuovať pred príchodom jednotiek a nikto nehlásil zranenie. Prvý bol označený pod kontrolou za menej ako 15 minút. V čase požiaru boli prítomné a fungovali dymové hlásiče.

Úrad požiarneho maršala a kraja Stafforda zistil, že požiar vznikol v garáži a bol náhodný. Rezidencia je dočasne neobývateľná a obyvatelia odmietli pomoc Amerického červeného kríža.

Jednotkám SCFR na mieste pomáhali hasičské a záchranné služby Quantico


400 rokov po „prvom vďakyvzdaní“ kmeň, ktorý kŕmil pútnikov, pokračuje v boji za svoju krajinu uprostred ďalšej epidémie

Keď bola Paula Petersová v polovici šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia v druhom ročníku vo Philadelphii a počúvala rozhovor učiteľa o kolónii Plymouth a Mayflower, študent sa pýta, čo sa stalo s pôvodnými Američanmi, ktorí pomohli pútnikom usadiť sa, Wampanoag. Učiteľ povedal, že sú všetci mŕtvi.

“Keď spomenula, že sme všetci mŕtvi, to bolo zničujúce, ” Peters, 61, si spomenul na ČAS. “ Zdvihol som ruku a povedal som nie, že to nie je pravda, ja som#Wampanoag a stále som tu. Vtedy som ako žiačka druhého stupňa nevedela dosť, že by som ju mohla vyzvať, ale myslím si, že odvtedy som toho učiteľa z druhého stupňa vyzvala. Súčasťou môjho každodenného bytia je hovoriť ľuďom, že sme stále tu. ”

Od tej doby Peters, člen kmeňa Mashpee Wampanoag, propaguje vzdelávanie o skutočnej histórii sviatku Dňa vďakyvzdania. Ona a jej syn pomohli začleniť perspektívu Wampanoag do udalostí okolo 400. výročia pristátia pútnikov a#8217 tento mesiac v Cape Cod. Päť týždňov po zakotvení Mayflower v roku 1620 sa Pútnici plavili, aby našli pôdu vhodnejšiu na pestovanie plodín, ktoré chceli, a skončili v Patuxete, Wampanoagskom názve oblasti, kde založili kolóniu Plymouth. Tento kontakt s Európanmi priniesol mor a choroby a takmer nás vyhubil, takže to nie je ani dôvod na oslavu, “hovorí Kitty Hendricks-Miller (62), indická koordinátorka vzdelávania z kmeňa Mashpee Wampanoag. Pre mnoho Wampanoagov bola Deň vďakyvzdania vždy považovaná za deň smútku kvôli epidémii a storočiam politík sťahovania Američanov, ktoré nasledovali.

Mnohí Wampanoag dúfali, že 400. výročie pristátia v Mayflower bude pozinkovanou udalosťou, ktorá ľuďom pripomenie, že Wampanoag stále existuje, ale mnohé spomienkové akcie boli kvôli pandémii COVID-19 zrušené, odložené alebo presunuté online. Wampanoag, s ktorým sa rozprával TIME, vyjadril pocit “eerie ” d & eacutej & agrave vu a žasol nad tým, koľko sa toho v niektorých ohľadoch za 400 rokov nezmenilo. Kmeň je uprostred boja o prežitie na dvoch frontoch: boj o prežitie počas globálnej pandémie a boj o udržanie kontroly nad svojou krajinou.

Pred štyristo rokmi sa Wampanoag spamätávali z epidémie, ktorá takmer zničila dedinu Patuxet. V roku 1616, ešte pred príchodom pútnikov, stále záhadná choroba spôsobila epidémiu, ktorá zdecimovala odhadom 75% až 90% zo 69 dedín, ktoré vtedy tvorili národ Wampanoag. Bez moderných znalostí o tom, ako sa choroby šíria, to Wampanoags pripisoval nadprirodzeným duchom a strelnému prachu.

“ Epidémia, ktorá zdecimovala ľudí z Wampanoagu tesne pred príchodom Mayflower, zmietla väčšinu ich populácie, ” hovorí David J. Silverman, historik a autor knihy Táto krajina je ich krajinou: Indiáni z Wampanoagu, kolónia Plymouth a pohnutá história vďakyvzdania. Spočiatku “a veľa pôvodných ľudí spájalo strelné zbrane s epidemickou chorobou, pretože vedia, že keď sa objavia Európania a krátko na to začnú strieľať zo zbraní, ľudia začnú zomierať na epidemické choroby. ”

Takéto ohniská chorôb by boli v oblastiach Wampanoag bežné asi ďalších 30 rokov. Európania považovali zdecimovanie pôvodného obyvateľstva za niečo podobné ako#8220 Boh zmieta pohanov, “hovorí Silverman.

“ Toto je súčasť toho, čo vytvorilo zraniteľnosť, ktorá umožnila cestujúcim Mayflower mať miesto v Massachusetts, ” hovorí Hartman Deetz, 45, umelec, pedagóg a aktivista z Mashpee Wampanoag. Na začiatku 17. storočia niektoré odhady uviedli, že v Novom Anglicku bolo viac ako 40 000 ľudí z Wampanoagu. Teraz sa ich odhaduje na 4 000-5 000. Dnes tvoria dva federálne uznané kmene, Mashpee a Aquinnah a dve najväčšie komunity Wampanoag a mdashas, ​​ako aj niekoľko ďalších kmeňov uznaných Massachusetts.

Je trochu ironické, že pri 400. výročí uznania tohto bodu v histórii sme nútení zostať doma a zostať oddelení a cítiť strach a neistotu a niektoré veci, s ktorými sa moji predkovia zaoberali, oveľa vážnejšie. móda, ” dodáva radca Aquinnah Wampanoag, Jonathan James-Perry, 44, ktorý je uvedený na online výstave Počúvanie hlasov Wampanoag: viac ako 1620 organizuje Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology na Harvardskej univerzite.

Príbehy chorôb, ktoré pustošia populáciu Wampanoagu a ktoré tak úzko zodpovedajú modernej pandémii, sú len jedným z mnohých aspektov, ktoré boli v Amerike vynechané.

V skutočnosti všetko, čo vieme o jedle známom ako „Prvá vďakyvzdanie“#8221 v roku 1621, pochádza z niekoľkých odsekov napísaných významnými osobnosťami kolónie v Plymouthe, Edwardom Winslowom a guvernérom Williamom Bradfordom, ktoré expertom naznačovali, že nebolo. v tej dobe veľký problém. Väčšina významu k jedlu bola pridaná v 19. storočí, keď sa národ rozdelil o otroctvo a občiansku vojnu, ako príležitosť povzbudiť Američanov, aby sa spojili počas federálnych sviatkov. V priebehu rokov sa vytvoril veľký význam jedla, ktoré prinieslo mnoho mýtov a mylných predstáv, ktoré Wampanoags a pôvodní obyvatelia Ameriky od tej doby odhaľovali.

“ Byť osobou Wampanoag v tomto ročnom období, je vždy zarážajúce, že rozprávame tento príbeh o pútnikoch a indiánoch, a napriek tomu sú ľudia z Wampanoag často krát vynechaní z tohto rozprávania tohto príbehu. Nie je nám dané slušnosť, že by sme dokonca mali meno nás ako uvedených ľudí, ” hovorí Deetz.

Linda Coombs, 71, pedagogička múzea Aquinnah Wampanoag, ktorá sa tiež zúčastnila Počúvanie hlasov Wampanoag: viac ako 1620 a informuje učiteľov o indiánskych perspektívach americkej histórie, domnieva sa, že násiliu po tomto mýtickom vďakyvzdaní sa treba postaviť tvárou v tvár. “ Keď v 17. storočí prišli kolonisti, museli sa nás v tej či onej forme alebo inej forme zbaviť, či už nás to obrátilo, presunulo, zničilo alebo transportovalo z krajiny do otroctva. len si želajú, aby to ľudia vedeli, pretože táto história ešte nie je dostatočne známa, ale bolo potrebné, aby bola Amerika taká, aká je dnes a aby si ľudia sadli na večeru vďakyvzdania. ”

Koncom marca, na vrchole pandémie koronavírusu, americké ministerstvo vnútra oznámilo, že neexistuje dôvod, aby kmeň a rsquos 321 akrov kmeňovej pôdy v Mashpee a Taunton, Massachusetts, mali štatút rezervácie, pretože kmeň údajne nemal & #8217t spĺňa definíciu indiána. V júni federálny sudca označil oddelenie vnútra & rozhodnutie rsquos za „svojvoľné, rozmarné, zneužívanie diskrétnosti a v rozpore so zákonom“ ” a uviedol, že agentúra bude musieť znova opraviť otázku, či je kmeň oprávnený vyhradiť si pôdu a opraviť ju. všetky chyby, ktoré viedli k jeho pôvodnému rozhodnutiu. Táto záležitosť však nie je vyriešená a hoci kmeň čaká na nové rozhodnutie Interior & rsquos, dúfa v trvalú ochranu prostredníctvom kongresového aktu. Má tiež spojenca vo zvolenom prezidentovi Joeovi Bidenovi, ktorého platforma kmeňových národov naznačuje, že na strane kmeňa Mashpee Wampanoag a mdashand Biden údajne preveruje domorodého Američana ako tajomníka ministerstva vnútra, čo by tiež mohlo pomôcť.

Kmeň Mashpee mal tiež svoje vnútorné problémy, pretože jeho predseda bol 13. novembra zatknutý a obvinený z prijímania úplatkov v súvislosti s plánmi na výstavbu kasína.

“ Sme opäť o 400 rokov neskôr, uprostred pandémie a uprostred zabíjania pôdy a hádok o jurisdikcii a schopnosti koloniálneho práva uznať práva kolonizovaných ľudí, ” hovorí Deetz.

Wampanoag má počas federálnych sviatkov aj rodinné jedlo, je to však jedno z niekoľkých Deň vďakyvzdania, ktoré oslavujú počas celého roka, aby si uctili rôzne úrody. Peters obvykle na svojom dvore drží “prehrávač ” oheň, zhromaždí sa okolo ohniska a ponúkne tabak (vloží ho do ohňa), kde sa hovorí, že modlitby si pamätajú predkov a vyjadrujú vďačnosť všeobecne. Tento rok bude kvôli COVID-19 stretnutie jej rodiny a#8217 menšie ako obvykle.

51. ročník národného dňa smútku sa bude stále konať v Plymouth Rock. Na Deň vďakyvzdania to spravidla priťahuje viac ako 1 000 návštevníkov, ale tento rok organizátori povzbudzujú ľudí, ktorí nežijú v blízkosti, aby sledovali priamy prenos, aby znížili riziko šírenia ochorenia COVID-19. Pandémia COVID-19 len znásobila pocit straty, pretože si účastníci pamätajú ostatných pôvodných Američanov, ktorí zomreli na koronavírus, najmä v národe Navajo.

Mahtowin Munro (61), spoluvůdca Lakoty zo Spojených amerických indiánov v Novom Anglicku, začne deň pred pôstom. Dúfa, že rovnako ako hnutie Black Lives Matter zvýšilo povedomie o nadradenosti bielych, rasizme a pozornosti voči perspektívam čiernych, je táto udalosť pripomienkou počúvania pôvodných obyvateľov. “Keď sme tam spolu, je tu skutočne hlboký pocit solidarity a nádeje do budúcnosti, že sme všetci spolu a počúvame jeden druhého, čo môže viesť k lepšej budúcnosti pre všetkých. ”

Tieto udalosti sú príležitosťou porozprávať sa o spôsobe, akým sa ľuďom darí, a nielen o prežívaní. Hendricks-Miller nerád používa slovo prežitie tak často. “Sme ’ stále tu, ” ona radšej hovorí, “zvážiac všetko, čo sme prežili. Je to niečo ako zvučná mantra, stále sme tu. ”


„Náš“ príbeh Výstava histórie Wampanoag odhaľuje novú kapitolu: Návrat Tisquantum

„Náš“ príbeh: 400 rokov histórie Wampanoag, vzdelávacia a kultúrna výstava o histórii a tradíciách kmeňa Wampanoag, odhalila minulý mesiac novú kapitolu „Tisquantum sa vracia“. Nová kapitola bola oficiálne odhalená v Tantaquidgeonskom múzeu v Uncasville v Connecticute. Nová časť obsahuje tri panely a 7-minútové video zobrazujúce návrat Tisquantuma (známy ako Squanto) do dediny Patuxet krátko po Veľkom umieraní v rokoch 1616-1619.

Expozícia je prístupná verejnosti v Múzeum Tantaquidgeon do 20. decembra. Video si môžete pozrieť aj online na www.mittark.com.

„Náš“ príbeh je interaktívna putovná výstava, rozprávaná pôvodným hlasom, ktorá osvetľuje historické udalosti, ktoré mali významný vplyv na kmeň Wampanoag, ich vzťah s pútnikmi Mayflower a založenie kolónie Plymouth, základné udalosti, ktoré formoval najskoršie začiatky Ameriky. Pri vytváraní exponátu Plymouth 400 úzko spolupracoval s poradným výborom Wampanoag so zastúpením kmeňov Aquinnah Wampanoag a Mashpee Wampanoag.

K prvej inštalácii, ktorá bola debutovaná v roku 2014 debutom „Zachytený 1614, kritický spätný príbeh kolonizácie a koreňov amerického sviatku, Deň vďakyvzdania. „Messenger Runner“ pridal nový kontext týkajúci sa komunikačných tradícií kmeňa Wampanoag. „Veľké umieranie“ zobrazuje katastrofické dôsledky moru, ktorý zničil národ Wampanoag v rokoch 1616 až 1619. „Powwow“ bol predstavený v novembri 2017. Skúma tradície okolo zhromažďovania sa a vzdávania vďaky kombináciou súčasného interaktívneho videa. natívne umenie a fotografie zhromaždené Mashpee a Aquinnah powwows, ktoré sa každoročne konajú v júli a septembri. V novembri 2018 bola pridaná kapitola „Riadenie“ so zameraním na jedinečný štýl riadenia, ktorý vykonávajú Wampanoag a ďalšie Algonquinské národy. Tento štýl bol pre zakladateľov USA taký príťažlivý, že mnohé prvky sú premietnuté do ústavy. A teraz je kapitola 6 „Squanto sa vracia“ vystavená v Tantaquidgeonskom múzeu v Uncasville, Connecticut. Unesený v roku 1614, zistite, ako Squanto nakoniec našiel cestu domov a k čomu sa musel vrátiť.

Plymouth 400 poveril domorodý dizajnérsky tím vytvorením „nášho“ príbehu, aby sa zabezpečilo, že výstava bude dôkladne reprezentovať históriu pôvodných obyvateľov Nového Anglicka. Indická rada pre duchovné a kultúrne vzdelávanie Inc. a SmokeSygnals Marketing and Communications konceptualizovali, skúmali a produkovali „Náš“ príbeh a členovia kmeňov Mashpee a Aquinnah Wampanoag predstavili historické osobnosti výstavy. Vytvorenie tejto výstavy je v súlade s poslaním spoločnosti Plymouth 400 vytvoriť historicky presnú a kultúrne pamiatku, pretože pôvodné obyvateľstvo odmietlo účasť alebo čelí skresleniu a dokonca opomenutiu pri predchádzajúcich výročných udalostiach.

„Vnímanie z raného obdobia Plymouthu sa vrylo do amerického príbehu, keď prezident Lincoln použil ikonický symbol ľudí z Wampanoagu a anglických kolonistov, ktorí spolu hodovali v roku 1621 ako reprezentáciu spolupráce, keď vyhlásil náš štátny sviatok, Deň vďakyvzdania,“ hovorí Michele Pecoraro, výkonný riaditeľ. Riaditeľ Plymouthu 400. „Plymouth 400 sa zaväzuje vytvoriť spomienku, ktorá je historicky presná, čo znamená zaoberať sa skutočnosťou príbehu, ktorá neodráža zjednodušené a často nepresné zobrazenia Prvého vďakyvzdania. Cieľom tejto výstavy je informačne a autenticky vytvoriť rozhovory o týchto zásadných realitách našej histórie, ctiť prínos oboch kultúr a rozpoznať zložitosť ich vzťahu. “


Wampanoag I ScFr - história

Kmeň Chappaquiddick Wampanoag je historický kmeň Massachusetts. Rodnou krajinou predkov sú ostrov Chappaquiddick, Cape Poge a Muskeget. Chappaquiddick Wampanoag boli kmeňom v čase prvého kontaktu, keď sa USA stali krajinou v roku 1776 a keď sa Massachusetts stal súčasťou Federálneho zväzu v roku 1789. Kmeň mal až do konca 19. storočia dve rezervačné oblasti na Chappaquiddicku. Dnes Chappaquiddicks žijú vo vinici Martha’s Vineyard, väčšom ostrove vedľa Chappaquiddicku, na pevnine v Massachusetts a Rhode Island (vlasti predkov národa Wampanoag) a v celých Spojených štátoch. Kmeň podal niekoľko petícií na kolóniu Massachusetts Bay a štát Massachusetts v priebehu rokov pred rokom 1869. Kmeňoví občania navštevujú a používajú tradičné krajiny na ostrove Chappaquiddick a mnohé z nich sú alebo boli stranami petícií za registráciu pôdy podľa neindiáni za posledných 20 rokov.

Náš kmeň mal voči Chappaquiddickovi dve výhrady, kým nebol schválený zákon o občianskom zákone z Massachusetts z roku 1869. V tom čase boli naše pozemky pridelené jednotlivcom Chappaquiddick Wampanoag a ostrov Chappaquiddick bol pohltený mestom Edgartown. Naše rezervácie sú zdokumentované ako rezervácia vyčistených pozemkov na severnom krku a rezervácia lesov južne od ulice Chappaquiddick Road na viac ako 800 akroch.

Máme rozsiahlu legislatívnu históriu. Náš kmeň podal petície, koná a rozhoduje o riešení sťažností, problémov a obáv Chappaquiddicka v súvislosti s kolóniou Massachusetts Bay a štátom Massachusetts v rokoch 1692 až 1870. Napriek tomu, že našou rodnou domovinou je ostrov Chappaquiddick, naši ľudia bežne komunikovali s Akvinskou, Mašpejom a ďalšími. na pevnine. Všetci naši zapísaní kmeňoví členovia pochádzajú z jednotlivcov podľa Briggsovej správy z roku 1849 alebo z Earlovej správy z roku 1859.

Vybrané termíny:

Pakeponesso sa narodil okolo roku 1595 Sachem z Chappaquiddick, Cape Poge a Muskeget

1611 - Epenow bol unesený - Epenowa uniesli z mysu Poge a odviezli do Anglicka. V roku 1614 Epenow presvedčil Angličanov, že v jeho krajine je ZLATO a po ich príchode utiekol späť na ostrov.

1621 - Epenow podpísal zmluvu s pútnikmi - Epenow, zastupujúci Capawock, bol jedným zo Sachemov, ktorí podpísali zmluvu v Plymouthe s Massasoitom.

1642 - Thomas Mayhew, starší, kúpil v roku 1641 od dvoch ľudí prekrývajúce sa nároky na pôdu, ktorá je teraz Dukeskou krajinou, v roku 1642 sa vymenoval za guvernéra vinice Martha a začal skupovať pozemky od rôznych indických jednotlivcov. V tom čase bol Pakeponessoo sachom od Chappaquiddicka. Pakeponessoo a jeho nástupca Seeknout by nepredali pôdu kolonistom. Vyrovnávali potreby domorodcov a kolonistov prostredníctvom opatrení, ktoré umožnili zhruba 140 Wampanoagom z Chappaquiddicku a približne 200 kolonistom z Edgartownu existovať spoločne.

Sachem Pakeponesso - vyčítal Hiacoomesovi, že sa stýkal s kresťanmi

1651 - kresťanské zhromaždenie v Chappaquiddicku riadenom Hiacoomesom 1651, zborom zriadeným pre „členov schôdze“.

1663 - Pakeponesso udelila pozemok Thomasovi Mayhewovi - Natickovi

Okolo 1681 - Seeknout, mladší syn Pakeponessa sa po smrti svojho otca stane sachémom

1691 - Joshua Seeknout - vnuk Pakepanessa je sachem od roku 1692 až do svojej smrti v roku 1716 predáva ostrov Muskeget Mayhewovi v roku 1692.

1726 až 1788 petícií predložili naši ľudia guvernérovi a generálnej rade s odvolaním sa na neoprávnený prístup k pôde, nezákonný predaj pôdy a nevhodné správanie opatrovníkov.

1772/1773 Chappaquiddick Wampanoag Petícia do Anglicka - Simon Porrage (zástupca Wampanoagu) doručil ručne petíciu britskému kráľovi Jurajovi III. Prikázal riešiť sťažnosti, ale Boston ich neposlúchol.

1788 pozemná divízia - V roku 1788 časť ostrova, ktorá nebola predaná pred týmto dátumom, rozdelila kolónia medzi osadníkov a Chappaquiddicks. Získali „pochmúrnu piesočnatú pôdu“ a zachovali si iba 1/5 ostrova. Mali dve rezervácie, rezerváciu Vyčistené pozemky na Severnom krku a rezerváciu Drevené krajiny.

1828 vyrazil - V roku 1828 boli kmeňové krajiny opäť rozdelené opatrovníkmi (v rámci kmeňového rezervačného systému v MA) medzi naše rodiny. Toto rozdelenie nasleduje po žiadosti Chappaquiddicksa, aby boli pozemky rozdelené podľa rodinných jednotiek. Spoločné krajiny

zostali a určité miesta, ako napríklad brusnicové rašeliniská, zostali na použitie kmeňa.

Život počas 1800 s - V priebehu 19. storočia znášal Chappaquiddicks útrapy pod strážnym systémom. Earleova správa vykresľuje obraz ľudí, ktorí bojujú o prežitie. Žije sa im len ťažko na zemi a rozdeľuje ich otázka, či chcú, aby sa právo stalo súčasťou väčšej spoločnosti a už nebolo „strážcami štátu“.

LEGISLATÍVNA činnosť niekoľko rokov - Massachusetts koná a rozhoduje v rokoch 1692 až 1859

1849 Briggsova správa - sú uvedené Chappaquiddick Wampanoag

1859 John Milton Earle Report - sú uvedené Chappaquiddick Wampanoag

Massachusettsov zákon o oslobodení indiánov od roku 1869 - Keď boli pozemky pridelené podľa Massachusettského zákona z roku 1869, krajiny Chappaquiddick sa stali súčasťou Edgartownu, namiesto toho, aby sa stali samostatným mestom. Krajiny Mashpee a Akvinna sa stali oddelenými mestami. Ľudia z Mashpee a Aquinnah zastávali vedúce funkcie v novozaložených mestách.

Začiatok 20. storočia - každoročné stretnutia na severnom krku v Chappaquiddick v mieste umiestnenia prameňov. Členovia kmeňových rodín, ktorí žijú na pevnine, niekoľko rokov v priebehu 20. storočia trávili v letných mesiacoch dlhšie obdobia s Handy, Healis a Rockers, ktorí žijú v Oak Bluffs.

Štyridsiatych rokov minulého storočia - Niekoľko miest na ostrove Chappaquiddick, vrátane South Beach a Cape Pogue, sa vo veľkej miere využívalo na výcvik potápačských bômb a iné operácie s muníciou počas 2. svetovej vojny vojenskými lietadlami mimo námornej leteckej stanice Quonset Point v Quonsete, R. I. Pozrite a prečítajte si viac tu.

50. až 80. roky minulého storočia - Jednotlivci Chappaquiddick dostali šeky na indické pozemky Chappaquiddick. Jednotlivci, ktorí okupovali určité časti, čistili tituly pomocou procedúr pozemkového súdu v Massachusetts.

Vybrané nároky na pozemky:

1977 - Prípad Epps - Pozrite sa na prípad tu.

1981 - „Koalícia šiestich kmeňov Wampanoag podala žalobu proti federálnej vláde - v úsilí získať späť pôdu. Chappaquiddicks, Christiantowners, Herring Ponders, Mashpees, Troys a Gay Headers. Robert C. Hahn, právnik Indov, uviedol, že v žalobe sa tvrdí, že suverenita nad indickou pôdou bola od štátu prenesená na federálnu vládu po roku 1789, čo znamená, že kmeňový majetok nemožno bez federálneho súhlasu vzdať ani odobrať. “ New York Times, 19. december 1981.

1995 - Kmeň Chappaquiddick indiánskeho národa Wampanoag je založený kmeňovými vodcami ako nezisková komunitná spoločnosť, ktorá patrí pod kmeň Chappaquiddick kmeňa Wampanoag národa.

2015 - Plaketa Indického pohrebiska Chappaquiddick - venované každoročne Chappaquiddick Wampanoag Zhromažďovanie pamätnej tabule postavila Komisia pre cintorín v Edgartowne.

1995 do súčasnosti - každoročné júlové stretnutia na ostrove Chappaquiddick.


Tábor Pokanoket


Píšeme v mene indiánskych a domorodých štúdií (NAIS) v meste Brown, interdisciplinárnej iniciatívy fakúlt a študentov, ktorí sa zaujímajú o vyučovanie a výskum a ktorých cieľom je dozvedieť sa viac o kultúrnych tradíciách a politických skúsenostiach pôvodných obyvateľov a zlepšiť ich porozumenie. Ľudia (najmä na západnej pologuli) prostredníctvom historických a súčasných objektívov.

Sme si istí, že už mnohí z vás počuli, že skupina domorodcov obsadila časť Brownovej zeme v Bristole. Existuje niekoľko noviniek a vieme, že prúdili aj príspevky na sociálne siete. Univerzita vydala vyhlásenie (priebežne aktualizované). Rešpektujeme a oceňujeme rozsiahlejšie otázky vyvlastnenia a kmeňovej suverenity, o ktoré tu ide, a sme odhodlaní naďalej komunikovať a konať spôsobom, ktorý je úctivý a zmysluplný pre všetky zúčastnené strany. Je to oveľa komplikovanejšia situácia, ako články uviedli, a je zrejmé, že väčšina ľudí, ktorí ich zdieľajú, si nie je vedomá tejto nuansy, a preto sme vám chceli poskytnúť trochu viac kontextu.

V štáte Massachusetts existujú dva federálne uznané národy Wampanoag - kmeň Wampanoag z Akvinny a kmeň Mashpee Wampanoag. Tu na Rhode Islande je indiánsky kmeň Narragansett v južnom okrese jediným federálne uznaným kmeňom. Aj keď na severovýchode existuje dlhá história vymazávania a nútenej asimilácie pôvodných obyvateľov, čo znamená, že mnohé kmeňové komunity boli vymazané z histórie, kmeň Pokanoket nie je uznávaný federálnou vládou ani štátom, a čo je dôležitejšie, neuznáva ho ani ostatné federálne uznávané komunity Wampanoag.

Pokanoket je skupina, ktorá sa hlási k pôvodu z rodu kráľa Filipa (Metacom) po vojne kráľa Filipa, a mnoho členov skupiny môže veľmi dobre mať pôvodný pôvod. Podľa historických záznamov, ktoré Mashpee používal na revitalizáciu svojho jazyka, však rodiny Pokanoketov po vojne prijal Mashpee a stali sa súčasťou ich komunity. Existuje vážny, ale dôležitý technický rozdiel medzi držaním pôvodného pôvodu a statusom národa, a to je jadrom problému.

Rovnako ako všetky univerzity v USA, aj Brownova univerzita je na pôvodnom území a súčasťou cieľa iniciatívy NAIS je pomôcť Brownovi produktívne rozpoznať tento vzťah a zodpovednosti, ktoré nesie. V posledných niekoľkých desaťročiach Brown v tejto oblasti dosiahol postupný pokrok a je pripravený urobiť v nasledujúcich rokoch oveľa viac s našimi iniciatívami v oblasti natívnych štúdií a ďalšou rozpracovanou prácou.

V súčasnej dobe Brown uznáva kultúrny význam bristolského areálu pre národy Wampanoag a ponúka prístup komukoľvek z miestnych pôvodných obyvateľov (vrátane Pokanoket), ktorí chcú využívať krajinu na duchovné alebo komunitné potreby. Pokanoket tiež každé leto spolupracuje so susednou farmou Mt. Hope, aby na predmetnom pozemku uskutočnil kultúrny letný tábor, a okrem toho na ňom každoročne organizuje komunitný festival zberu úrody.

Miestne aktivistické organizácie, ako napríklad FANG Collective (predovšetkým skupina bojujúca proti frakovaniu), skočili do podpory a zosúladenia veci bez toho, aby siahli po Aquinnah, Mashpee, Assonet, Herring Pond Wampanoag alebo Narragansett, čo je problém. Pretože Pokanoket nie je uznaný, nemali by prístup k žiadnej federálnej ani štátnej ochrane okolo kmeňových pozemkových správ a nemohli by dôverovať krajine, ktorá je základným kameňom kmeňovej suverenity. Do zlepšovania kultúrneho dozoru a využívania tejto krajiny je potrebné zapojiť všetky kmene, ktoré majú k tejto krajine rodové a duchovné väzby.

Mnoho rokov sme pracovali na tom, aby sme Browna povzbudili k tomu, aby uznal svoj vzťah a zodpovednosť voči miestnym pôvodným komunitám, a tieto vzťahy sú pre nás veľmi dôležité, pretože napredujeme v našej iniciatíve NAIS. Členovia administratívy Browna na vysokej úrovni sa v tejto záležitosti obrátili na Aquinnah a Mashpee a spolupracujú s nimi a stretli sa aj s Pokanoketom, ktorý sa v súčasnosti nachádza na pozemku. Dúfam, že dospejú k mierovému záveru.

S úctou vás žiadame, aby ste nezdieľali žiadne petície sponzorované spoločnosťou FANG, snahy o získanie finančných prostriedkov alebo materiály a aby ste nám pred zdieľaním informácií položili akékoľvek otázky. Sme radi, že vám môžeme poskytnúť ďalšie zdroje o akejkoľvek z tém uvedených stručne v tomto e -maile, a uvedomujeme si, že tie nuansy nemusia byť úplne jasné pre osoby mimo pôvodné komunity.


Dnes je tam asi štyri až päť tisíc Wampanoagov. Väčšina žije v Massachusetts, kde existujú dva federálne uznávané kmene, Aquinnah Wampanoag a Mashpee Wampanoag, ako aj niekoľko menších kapiel v oblastiach ako Herring Pond, Assonet a Manomet. Na karibských ostrovoch sú aj potomkovia Wampanoagovcov, ktorí boli po vojne s Angličanmi v 70. rokoch 16. storočia poslaní do otroctva.

Nie, Wampanoag nikdy nežili v takom type bývania. Týpí (alebo tipi) je štýl domu postaveného v regióne Great Plains. Sú zobrazené vo filme, umení a knihách viac ako sto rokov, takže nie je žiadnym prekvapením, že väčšina ľudí veľmi dobre pozná týpie, a nie až taký familair. wetus - typ domov postavených domorodými ľuďmi na severovýchode.

Tradičný Wampanoag wetus (domy) - tiež nazývané vigvamy na celom severovýchode - majú kupolovitý tvar a sú pokryté kôrou alebo orobincom. Tieto domy sú vhodné pre podnebie a život tu na severovýchode.


Indiáni z Wampanoag

Indiáni z Wampanoagu žili na začiatku 17. storočia na území dnešného štátu Massachusetts a Rhode Island. The name means &ldquoeasterners&rdquo and at one point, their population was 12,000. Among the more famous Wampanoag chiefs were Squanto, Samoset, Metacomet, and Massasoit.

They were known to eat what is called the Three Sisters &ndash maize, beans and squash. They also were hunters-gatherers who also went fishing and ate fruits to round out their diet. They did not live in teepees or longhouses, but wetus. The wetus were doomed shaped huts made of sticks and grass. The Wampanoag spoke a language sometimes called Massachusett or Natick. Although this language has been extinct since the 1800&rsquos, there has been a movement recently to revive it based on existing texts.

Right before the Pilgrams landed in 1620, the Wampanoag Indians saw their population greatly reduced due to disease. One interesting fact that you may not know is that the tradition of Thanksgiving was adopted from the Wampanoag Indians interaction with the Pilgrims. However, Chief Metacomet, sometimes known as King Philip, declared war on the pilgrims. The growing number of English were displacing the Wampanoag Indians and converting them to their faith. Overall, King Philip felt the English were having negative affects on the ways of his tribe. The war only lasted a year, but it was the bloodiest of the Indian Wars, with most of the Wampanoag Indians and their allies, the Narraganset, being killed. Those that were not killed in war fled to other tribes and those captured were either relocated or sold into slavery. Another thing the war did was end the peaceful cohabitation of the New World and white settlers began to dominate the Native Americans.

Today, about 3,000 Wampanoag Indians still live in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. There is a reservation for the Wampanoag Indians on Martha&rsquos Vineyard that was set up by the United States government.


Wampanoag Story

A view from those who met the Pilgrims, the Wampanoag.

“In 1600 the Wampanoag probably were as many as 12,000 with 40 villages divided roughly between 8,000 on the mainland and another 4,000 on the off-shore islands of Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket. The three epidemics which swept across New England and the Canadian Maritimes between 1614 and 1620 were especially devastating to the Wampanoag and neighboring Massachuset with mortality in many mainland villages (i.e. Patuxet) reaching 100%. When the Pilgrims landed in 1620, fewer than 2,000 mainland Wampanoag had survived. The island Wampanoag were protected somewhat by their relative isolation and still had 3,000. At least 10 mainland villages had been abandoned after the epidemics, because there was no one left. After English settlement of Massachusetts, epidemics continued to reduce the mainland Wampanoag until there were only 1,000 by 1675. Only 400 survived King Philip’s War.

Still concentrated in Barnstable, Plymouth, and Bristol counties of southeastern Massachusetts, the Wampanoag have endured and grown slowly to their current membership of 3,000. The island communities of Wampanoag on Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket maintained a population near 700 until a fever in 1763 killed two-thirds of the Nantucket. It never recovered, and the last Nantucket died in 1855. The community Martha’s Vineyard has sustained itself by adding native peoples from the mainland and intermarriage, but by 1807 only 40 were full-bloods. Massachusetts divided the tribal lands in 1842 and ended tribal status in 1870, but the Wampanoag reorganized as the Wampanoag Nation in 1928. There are currently five organized bands: Assonet, Gay Head, Herring Pond, Mashpee, and Namasket. All have petitioned for federal and state recognition, but only Gay Head (600 members but without a reservation) has been successful (1987). The Mashpee (2,200 members) were turned down by the federal courts in 1978.

Like other Algonquin in southern New England, the Wampanoag were a horticultural people who supplemented their agriculture with hunting and fishing. Villages were concentrated near the coast during the summer to take advantage of the fishing and seafood, but after the harvest, the Wampanoag moved inland and separated into winter hunting camps of extended families. Since New England was heavily populated before 1600, these hunting territories were usually defined to avoid conflict. Ownership passed from father to son, but it was fairly easy to obtain permission to hunt in someone else’s lands. The Wampanoag were organized as a confederacy with lesser sachems and sagamores under the authority of a Grand Sachem. Although the English often referred to Wampanoag sachems as “kings,” there was nothing royal about the position beyond respect and a very limited authority. Rank had few privileges, and Wampanoag sachems worked for a living like everyone else. It should also be noted that, in the absence of a suitable male heir, it was not uncommon among the Wampanoag for a woman to become the sachem (queen or squaw-sachem)

The earliest contacts between the Wampanoag and Europeans occurred during the 1500s as fishing and trading vessels roamed the New England coast. Judging from the Wampanoag’s later attitude towards the Pilgrims, most of these encounters were friendly. Some, however, were not. European captains were known to increase profits by capturing natives to sell as slaves. Such was the case when Thomas Hunt kidnapped several Wampanoag in 1614 and later sold them in Spain. One of his victims – a Patuxet named Tisquantum (Squanto) – was purchased by Spanish monks who attempted to “civilize” him. Eventually gaining his freedom, Squanto was able to work his way to England (apparently undeterred by his recent experience with Captain Hunt) and signed on as an interpreter for a British expedition to Newfoundland. From there Squanto went back to Massachusetts, only to discover that, in his absence, epidemics had killed everyone in his village. As the last Patuxet, he remained with the other Wampanoag as a kind of ghost.

To Squanto’s tragic story must be added a second series of unlikely events. Living in Holland at the time was a small group of English religious dissenters who, because of persecution, had been forced to leave England. Concerned their children were becoming too Dutch and the possibility of a war between Holland and Spain, but still unwelcome in England, these gentle people decided to immigrate to the New World. The Virginia Company agreed to transport them to the mouth of the Hudson River, took their money, and loaded them on two ships (Speedwell and Mayflower) with other English immigrants not of their faith. The little fleet set sail in July only to have the Speedwell spring a leak 300 miles out to sea. Accompanied by the Mayflower, it barely made it back to Plymouth without sinking. Repairs failed to fix the problem, so in September everyone was crammed aboard the Mayflower, and the whole mess sent merrily on its seasick way to the New World.

Landfall occurred near Cape Cod after 65 days and a very rough passage, but strangely enough, the Mayflower’s captain, who had managed to cross the Atlantic during hurricane season, suddenly was unable to sail around some shoals and take them farther south. This forced the Pilgrims to find a place to settle in Massachusetts and try to survive a New England winter with few supplies. For the Virginia Company, there was no problem, since in 1620, Great Britain claimed the boundary of Virginia reached as far north as the present border between Maine and New Brunswick. So the Pilgrims were still in Virginia (although perhaps a little farther north than originally promised), but remembering Britain’s concern at the time about French settlement in Nova Scotia, the misplacement of the Pilgrims to New England may not have been entirely an accident.

Skipping past the signing of the Mayflower Compact, the first concerns of the new arrivals were finding something to eat and a place to settle. After anchoring off Cape Cod on November 11, 1620, a small party was sent ashore to explore. Pilgrims in every sense of the word, they promptly stumbled into a Nauset graveyard where they found baskets of corn which had been left as gifts for the deceased. The gathering of this unexpected bounty was interrupted by the angry Nauset warriors, and the hapless Pilgrims beat a hasty retreat back to their boat with little to show for their efforts. Shaken but undaunted by their welcome to the New World, the Pilgrims continued across Cape Cod Bay and decided to settle, of all places, at the site of the now-deserted Wampanoag village of Patuxet. There they sat for the next few months in crude shelters – cold, sick and slowly starving to death. Half did not survive that terrible first winter. The Wampanoag were aware of the English but chose to avoid contact them for the time being.

In keeping with the strange sequence of unlikely events, Samoset, a Pemaquid (Abenaki) sachem from Maine hunting in Massachusetts, came across the growing disaster at Plymouth. Having acquired some English from contact with English fishermen and the short-lived colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River in 1607, he walked into Plymouth in March and startled the Pilgrims with “Hello Englishmen.” Samoset stayed the night surveying the situation and left the next morning. He soon returned with Squanto. Until he succumbed to sickness and joined his people in 1622, Squanto devoted himself to helping the Pilgrims who were now living at the site of his old village. Whatever his motivations, with great kindness and patience, he taught the English the skills they needed to survive, and in so doing, assured the destruction of his own people.

Although Samoset appears to have been more important in establishing the initial relations, Squanto also served as an intermediary between the Pilgrims and Massasoit, the Grand sachem of the Wampanoag (actual name Woosamaquin or “Yellow Feather”). For the Wampanoag, the ten years previous to the arrival of the Pilgrims had been the worst of times beyond all imagination. Micmac war parties had swept down from the north after they had defeated the Penobscot during the Tarrateen War (1607-15), while at the same time the Pequot had invaded southern New England from the northwest and occupied eastern Connecticut. By far the worst event had been the three epidemics which killed 75% of the Wampanoag. In the aftermath of this disaster, the Narragansett, who had suffered relatively little because of their isolated villages on the islands of Narragansett Bay, had emerged as the most powerful tribe in the area and forced the weakened Wampanoag to pay them tribute.

Massasoit, therefore, had good reason to hope the English could benefit his people and help them end Narragansett domination. In March (1621) Massasoit, accompanied by Samoset, visited Plymouth and signed a treaty of friendship with the English giving them permission of occupy the approximately 12,000 acres of what was to become the Plymouth plantation.However, it is very doubtful Massasoit fully understood the distinction between the European concept of owning land versus the native idea of sharing it. For the moment, this was unimportant since so many of his people had died during the epidemics that New England was half-deserted. Besides, it must have been difficult for the Wampanoag to imagine how any people so inept could ever be a danger to them. The friendship and cooperation continued, and the Pilgrims were grateful enough that fall to invite Massasoit to celebrate their first harvest with them (The First Thanksgiving). Massasoit and 90 of his men brought five deer, and the feasting lasted for three days. The celebration was a little premature. During the winter of 1622, a second ship arrived unexpectedly from England, and with 40 new mouths to feed, the Pilgrims were once again starving. Forgiving the unfortunate incident in the graveyard the previous year, the Nauset sachem Aspinet brought food to Plymouth.

To the Narragansett all of this friendship between the Wampanoag and English had the appearance of a military alliance directed against them, and in 1621 they sent a challenge of arrows wrapped in a snakeskin to Plymouth. Although they could barely feed themselves and were too few for any war, the English replaced the arrows with gunpowder and returned it. While the Narragansett pondered the meaning of this strange response, they were attacked by the Pequot, and Plymouth narrowly avoided another disaster. The war with the Pequot no sooner ended than the Narragansett were fighting the Mohawk. By the time this ended, Plymouth was firmly established. Meanwhile, the relationship between the Wampanoag and English grew stronger. When Massasoit became dangerously ill during the winter of 1623, he was nursed back to health by the English. By 1632 the Narragansett were finally free to reassert their authority over the Wampanoag. Massasoit’s village at Montaup (Sowam) was attacked, but when the colonists supported the Wampanoag, the Narragansett finally were forced to abandon the effort.

After 1630 the original 102 English colonists who founded Plymouth (less than half were actually Pilgrims) were absorbed by the massive migration of the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony near Boston. Barely tolerant of other Christians, the militant Puritans were soldiers and merchants whose basic attitude towards Native Americans was not one of friendship and cooperation. Under this new leadership, the English expanded west into the Connecticut River Valley and during 1637 destroyed the powerful Pequot confederacy which opposed them. Afterwards they entered into an alliance with the Mohegan upsetting the balance of power. By 1643 the Mohegan had defeated the Narragansett in a war, and with the full support of Massachusetts, emerged as the dominant tribe in southern New England. With the French in Canada focused to the west on the fur trade from the Great Lakes, only the alliance of the Dutch and Mohawk in New York stood in their way.

Boston traders had tried unsuccessfully to lure the Mohawk away from the Dutch in 1640 by selling firearms, but the Dutch had countered with their own weapons and in the process dramatically escalated the level of violence in the Beaver Wars which were raging along the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. The barrier fell when the English captured New York from the Dutch in 1664 and signed their own treaty with the Mohawk. Between 1640 to 1675 new waves of settlers arrived in New England and pushed west into native lands. While the Pilgrims usually had paid or asked permission, the Puritans were inclined to take. There was an especially large amount of immigration after 1660 when the Restoration ended the military dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell, and Puritans were in extreme disfavor with the new English monarchy of Charles II. At the same time there had been a fundamental change in New England’s economy. After the Mohawk treaty, many of the Boston fur traders left New England and moved west to Albany near the Iroquois. No longer restrained by the possibility of war with the English, the Iroquois fell on the Algonquin in western New England and began driving them east at the same time English settlement was rapidly swallowing lands in the east.

By 1665 Native Americans in southern New England were simply in the way. The English no longer needed their wilderness skills to survive, and fishing and other commerce had largely replaced the fur and wampum trade which had been the mainstays of the colonial economy during the early years. While there was nothing to equal the devastation of 1614-20, the native population had continued to decline from continuing epidemics: 1633, 1635, 1654, 1661 and 1667. The Puritans’ “humane” solution to this after 1640 was the missionary work of John Eliot and others to convert the native population. How “humane” these efforts actually were is a matter of opinion. Converts were settled in small communities of “Praying Indians” at Natick, Nonantum, Punkapog, and other locations. Natives even partially resistant to the Puritan version of Christianity were unwelcome. Attendance at church was mandatory, clothing and hair changed to proper colonial styles, and even a hint of traditional ceremony and religion was grounds for expulsion. Tribal culture and authority disintegrated in the process.

Even Massasoit fell in with the adoption of English customs and before his death in 1661, petitioned the General Court at Plymouth to give English names to his two sons. The eldest Wamsutta was renamed Alexander, and his younger brother Metacomet became Philip. Married to Queen Weetamoo of Pocasset, Alexander became grand sachem of the Wampanoag upon the death of his father. The English were not pleased with his independent attitude, and invited him to Plymouth for “talks.” After eating a meal in Duxbury, Alexander became violently ill and died. The Wampanoag were told he died of a fever, but the records from the Plymouth Council at the time make note of an expense for poison “to rid ourselves of a pest.” The following year Metacomet (Wewesawanit) succeeded his murdered brother as grand sachem of the Wampanoag eventually becoming known to the English as King Philip.

Metacomet aka King Philip

Philip does not appear to have been a man of hate, but under his leadership, the Wampanoag attitude towards the colonists underwent a drastic change. Realizing that the English would not stop until they had taken everything, Philip was determined to prevent further expansion of English settlement, but this was impossible for the Wampanoag by themselves since they were down to only 1,000 people by this time. Travelling from his village at Mount Hope, Philip began to slowly enlist other tribes for this purpose. Even then it was a daunting task, since the colonists in New England by this time outnumbered the natives better than two to one (35,000 versus 15,000). Philip made little attempt to disguise his purpose, and through a network of spies (Praying Indians), the English knew what he was doing. Summoned to Taunton in 1671, Philip listened to accusations and signed an agreement to give up the Wampanoag’s firearms. However, he did not stay around for dinner afterwards, and the guns were never surrendered.

As English encroachment continued, Philip eventually won promises of support from the Nipmuc, Pocumtuc and Narragansett. Because the Narragansett needed time to build a supply of ammunition and guns, it appears the uprising was planned for the spring of 1676. Meanwhile, the English saw what was coming, and the tension was becoming unbearable. In January, 1675 the body of John Sassamon, a Christian Indian informer, was discovered in the ice of Assowampset Pond. Three Wampanoag warriors were arrested, tried for the murder, and hanged. After this provocation, Philip could no longer restrain his warriors, and amid rumors the English intended to arrest him, Philip held a council of war at Mount Hope. He could count on the support of most of the Wampanoag except for those on the off-shore islands. For similar reasons, the Nauset on Cape Cod would also remain neutral, but most Nipmuc and Pocumtuc were ready for war along with some of the Pennacook and Abenaki. The Narragansett, however, had not completed preparations and had been forced to sign a treaty with the English.

In late June a Wampanoag was killed near the English settlement at Swansea, and the King Philip’s War (1675-76) began. The Wampanoag attacked Swansea and ambushed an English relief column. Other raids struck near Taunton, Tiverton, and Dartmouth. Despite being forewarned and their advantage in numbers, the English were in serious trouble. Well-armed with firearms (some French, but many acquired through trade with the English themselves), the Wampanoag and their allies even had their own forges and gunsmiths. Drawing from virtually every tribe in New England, Philip commanded more than 1,000 warriors, and even the tribes who chose to remain neutral were often willing to provide food and shelter. Only the Mohegan under Oneko (Uncas’ son) remained loyal to the English. Particularly disturbing to the colonists was the defection of most of the “Praying Indians.” When Puritan missionaries attempted to gather their converts, only 500 could be found. The others had either taken to the woods or joined Philip. Their loyalty still suspect, the Praying Indians who remained were sent to the islands of Boston Harbor and other “plantations of confinement.”

The English assembled an army at Plymouth in July and marched on Philip’s village at Mount Hope (near Bristol, Rhode Island) burning every Wampanoag village enroute. They trapped the Wampanoag in a swamp on Pocasset Neck, but they managed to evacuate their women and children by canoe across the bay to the Pocasset of Queen Weetamoo (Alexander’s widow). Philip and his warriors then slipped away leaving the English besieging an empty swamp! Leaving his women and children under the care of the still-neutral Narragansett, Philip moved west into the Nipmuc country of central Massachusetts. Although English accounts usually credit Philip as being present at almost every battle in the war, this would have been physically impossible. Philip provided political leadership, while others like Anawon, Tuspaquin, Sagamore Sam (Nipmuc), and Sancumachu (Pocumtuc) led the actual attacks. From Philip’s new location in the west, the war then resumed at an even more furious pace than before. The Nipmuc raided Brookfield and Worcester and then combined with the Pocumtuc to attack settlements in the Connecticut River Valley. After a raid at Northfield, a relief force under Captain Beers was ambushed south of town and more than half killed. Three survivors were captured and burned at the stake. In September Deerfield and Hadley were attacked forcing the colonists to abandon their homes and fort-up together in Deerfield. Facing a winter without food, 80 soldiers under Captain Thomas Lothrop were dispatched with 18 teamsters to gather the abandoned crops near Hadley. All went well until the return journey, when the expedition was ambushed by the 700 Pocumtuc at Bloody Brook south of Deerfield. Another English force with 60 Mohegan warriors arrived too late and found only seven survivors.

Having dealt with the northern settlements on the Connecticut River, Philip’s warriors began to work south attacking Hatfield, Springfield, Westfield, and Northampton (three separate times). Even with the help of the Mohegan, the English in western Massachusetts were hard-pressed, and by late fall, they were on the defensive and confined to a handful of forts. By this time Philip felt confident enough to return to the Narragansett in Rhode Island and collect his women and children. Travelling west to the Connecticut River, he moved north to the vicinity of Deerfield and then west into the Berkshire Mountains where he established his winter quarters just across the border from Massachusetts at Hoosick, New York. Gaining new recruits from among the Sokoki (and even a few Mahican and Mohawk), the population of Philip’s village at Hoosick grew to more than 2,000, and the winter of 1675-76 was a long, terrible battle with hunger.

For obvious reasons, the English considered neutral tribes who helped the Wampanoag as enemies, but their efforts to stop this widened the war. At the outbreak of the fighting, the Narragansett had gathered themselves in single large fort in a swamp near Kingston, Rhode Island. Although it appeared they were on the verge of annulling their treaty with the English and entering the war on the side of Philip, the only thing they had been guilty of during the first six months of the conflict was providing shelter for Wampanoag women, children, and other non-combatants. In December of 1675, Governor Josiah Winslow of Plymouth led a 1,000 man army with 150 Mohegan scouts against the Narragansett. The English demanded the Narragansett surrender of any Wampanoag who remained and join them against Philip. When this was refused, the English attacked. Known as the Great Swamp Fight (December 19, 1675), the battle almost destroyed the Narragansett. In all they lost more than 600 warriors and at least 20 of their sachems, but the English also lost heavily to and was in no condition to pursue the Narragansett who escaped. Led by their sachem, Canonchet, many of the survivors joined Philip at Hoosick.

Philip in the meantime had attempted to bring the Mohawk into the war against New England. New York’s governor Edmund Andros was a royal appointee with little love for the Puritans in Massachusetts and at first kept his colony neutral. This changed when he learned of Philip’s efforts to enlist the Iroquois. From long experience, the Iroquois were not comfortable with the presence of a large group of heavily-armed Algonquin on their borders (they had been at war with them for more than a century), and after several Mohawk were killed near Hoosick under questionable circumstances, refused Philip’s request. Encouraged by Governor Andros, the Mohawk became hostile and forced Philip to leave New York. He relocated east to Squawkeag in the Connecticut Valley near the border of Massachusetts and Vermont. Philip did not wait for warmer weather to resume the war. In February he launched a new series of raids throughout New England using his most effective weapon …fire. Victims included: Lancaster, Medfield, Weymouth, Groton, Warwick (Rhode Island), Marlborough, Rehoboth, Plymouth, Chelmsford, Andover, Sudbury, Brookfield, Scituate, Bridgewater, and Namasket.

As English soldiers rushed about trying to cope, they fell victim to ambushes. In March Canonchet and the Narragansett almost wiped out one command (60 killed), and in another fight shortly afterwards killed 70 more. With these successes Philip was able to gather a large number of warriors at Squawkeag, but he was unable to feed them. Although he was able to raid the English with impunity and fend off the Mohawk, Philip desperately needed to clear English settlement from the area so his people could plant corn and feed themselves. For this reason, the Narragansett and Pocumtuc joined forces in attacks on Northfield and Deerfield during the spring of 1676. Both raids were ultimately repulsed with heavy losses. Meanwhile, Philip’s followers needed seed corn for spring planting. Canonchet volunteered in April for the dangerous task of returning to Rhode Island where the Narragansett had a secret cache. He succeeded, but on the return journey was captured and executed by the Mohegan.

Canonchet’s death seemed to dishearten Philip and marked the turning point of the war. Philip moved his headquarters to Mount Wachusett, but the English had finally begun to utilize Praying Indians as scouts and became more effective. In May Captain William Turner attacked a fishing camp at Turner’s Falls killing over 400 (including the Pocumtuc sachem Sancumachu). Before forced to retreat by superior numbers, the English also killed several gunsmiths and destroyed Philip’s forges. Turner lost 43 men on his retreat to Hatfield , but the damage had been done. Philip’s confederacy began to break up, and it was everyone for himself. Some Nipmuc and Pocumtuc accepted an offer of sanctuary by New York and settled with the Mahican at Schaghticook. Others joined forces with the Sokoki (western Abenaki) and moved north to Cowasuck, Missisquoi, and Odanak (St. Francois) in Quebec. Philip and the Wampanoag, however, chose to return to their homeland in southeast Massachusetts.

Throughout the summer the Wampanoag were hunted down by Captain Benjamin Church’s rangers and Praying Indian scouts. Philip went into hiding near Mount Hope, but Queen Awashonks of the Sakonett surrendered and switched sides. On August 1st Philip escaped during an attack on his village, but the English captured his wife and son who were sent as prisoners to Martha’s Vineyard. Five days later, the Pocasset were caught near Taunton, and Weetamoo (Alexander’s widow) drowned while trying to escape. The English cut off her head and put it on display in Taunton. Philip and Anawon remained in hiding in the swamp near Mount Hope until betrayed by an informer, John Alderman. Guided by Alderman, Benjamin Church’s rangers surrounded Philip on August 12th. Alderman shot and killed Philip (for which he was given one of Philip’s hands as a trophy). Philip’s corpse was beheaded and quartered. His head was displayed on a pole at Plymouth for 25 years. Anawon was captured on August 28th and later killed by a mob, and Tuspaquin was executed by firing squad after he surrendered. Philip’s wife and son were reportedly sold as slaves to the West Indies, but it appears they were instead exiled from Massachusetts and joined the Sokoki at Odanak.

The war should have ended with Philip’s death, but peace treaties were not signed for another two years. Meanwhile, the English continued to hunt down Philip’s allies and those who had helped them. An expedition under Captain Richard Waldon attacked the Nashua in the midst of peace negotiations during 1676 killing 200. The prisoners were sold as slaves. Samuel Mosely followed this with an unprovoked attack on the neutral Pennacook. Other expeditions against the Androscoggin and Ossipee finally drew the Kennebec and Penobscot of the eastern Abenaki into the war. In November, 1676 an English army attacked Squawkeag and destroyed the corn needed for the coming winter. The Sokoki withdrew north to the protection of the French in Canada, but the English had provoked the Abenaki and Sokoki into at least 50 years of hostility.

With Philip and most of their leaders dead, the Wampanoag were nearly exterminated. Only 400 survived the war. The Narragansett and Nipmuc had similar losses, and although small bands continued to live along the Connecticut River until the 1800s, the Pocumtuc disappeared as an organized group. For the English, the war was also costly: 600 killed and more than half of 90 settlements attacked with 13 destroyed. Edward Randolph, an agent of the crown, estimated 3,000 natives were killed, but his estimate appears to have been very conservative. From a pre-war native population in southern New England of 15,000, only 4,000 were left in 1680, and the harsh peace terms imposed by the English placed them in total subjugation. In what has been called the Great Dispersal, the Algonquins in southern New England fled either to the Sokoki and French in Canada, or west to the Delaware and Iroquois.

Except for the villages on the off-shore islands which had remained neutral, the surviving mainland Wampanoag after the war were relocated with the Sakonnet or mixed with the Nauset in Praying Villages in western Barnstable County. The Wampanoag community on Martha’s Vineyard has persisted to the present day, although the one on Nantucket was destroyed by an unknown epidemic in 1763. The mainland Wampanoag became increasingly concentrated near Mashpee, but Massachusetts withdrew recognition during the 1800s. Without benefit of a treaty with the United States, only the Wampanoag at Gay Head have been able to gain federal recognition.


National Museum of the American Indian

Michele Felice Corné (1752–1845), "The Landing of the Pilgrims" (detail), 1803. (U.S. Department of State, Diplomatic Reception Rooms)

“The antidote to feel-good history is not feel-bad history, but honest and inclusive history.” —James W. Loewen, Plagues & Pilgrims: The Truth about the First Thanksgiving

The Thanksgiving story you know and the one I know are most likely the same. It’s the story deeply rooted in America’s curriculum—the one that inspires arguably the most important and tradition-filled holiday in American culture. We’re taught that in 1620 the Pilgrims fled harsh religious suppression in Britain, sailed across the Atlantic, and in December stepped ashore at Plymouth Rock, in what is now Massachusetts. With little food and no shelter, the colonists struggled to survive a brutal winter until a friendly Indian, Squanto, came along and showed them how to cultivate crops. Their first harvest resulted in a feast, as the Pilgrims gave thanks to the kind Indians for helping to bring the colony back to life.

This version of Thanksgiving, while pleasant, isn’t terribly accurate. Told from a perspective that frames the Pilgrims as the main characters, the story leaves out major details, glorifying the Pilgrims’ endeavor and the holiday it birthed, forcing the Wampanoag Indians into forgotten roles. It also erases a monumentally sad history. When we pay homage to the Pilgrims and their bravery, and react to the tragic background of America's founding myth with silence, we essentially support a mindset that only some people’s history matters.

Jennie Augusta Brownscombe (1850–1936), "The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth," 1914. Collection of Pilgrim Hall Museum. Not all mythical history is verbal. The Plains Indian headdresses worn by Brownscombe's Wampanoag leaders are probably enough said about "The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth." Notwithstanding the shirtless-in-December figure on shore in Corné's "Landing of the Pilgrims" (top), William Bradford, the governor of Plymouth Colony, wrote in his journal that it was four months before the Pilgrims saw the first Indians. (Pilgrim Hall Museum)

The true history of Thanksgiving begins with the Indians.

About four years before the Pilgrims anchored off Massachusetts, British fishermen had already started making their way through New England, storming through Indian towns to kidnap Native people for profit in the slavery trade. Although it’s often left out of textbooks, this series of intrusions was the catalyst to what is probably the most important event in this nation’s history, without which Europeans would not have been able to settle on top of the millions of Native people who already lived in America—at least, not as fast: epidemic illness.

Before 1492, the Western Hemisphere was largely isolated, sparing its indigenous peoples from diseases the rest of the world succumbed to time and time again. But this lack of contact prevented Natives of the Americas from developing any type of immunity to European, Asian, and African pathogens. When Europeans started trekking through Indian towns, they brought sickness with them. Indians died at an alarming rate, making it substantially easier for colonists to overpower entire villages—well, what was left of them.

The Pilgrims already believed they were part of God’s plan. Finding empty villages as 90 percent—yes, 90 percent—of America’s Indians perished in front of them only furthered Europeans’ sense of their destiny, influencing them to continue the colonization westward. As Jolene Rickard (Tuscarora) and Paul Chaat Smith (Comanche) wrote in Our Peoples: Giving Voice to Our Histories, one of the opening exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, “That initial explosion of death is one of the greatest tragedies in human history because it was unintended, and unavoidable, and even inevitable. But what happened in its wake was not.”

One people who famously suffered from the onslaught of disease were the Wampanoag, a nation made up of 69 villages scattered throughout present-day Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Skilled hunters, gatherers, farmers, and fishers during spring and summer, the Wampanoag moved inland to more protected shelter during the colder months of the year. Like indigenous groups everywhere, the Wampanoag had a reciprocal relationship with nature and believed that as long as they gave thanks to the bountiful world, it would give back to them. Long before the arrival of the Pilgrims, the Wampanoag held frequent Thanksgiving-like celebrations, giving thanks in the form of feasts and ceremonial games.

Exposed to new diseases, the Wampanoag lost entire villages. Only a fraction of their nation survived. By the time the Pilgrim ships landed in 1620, the remaining Wampanoag were struggling to fend off the Narragansett, a nearby Native people who were less affected by the plague and now drastically outnumbered them.

For a moment of history, the interests of the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag aligned. When the Pilgrims landed in New England, after failing to make their way to the milder mouth of the Hudson, they had little food and no knowledge of the new land. The Wampanoag suggested a mutually beneficial relationship, in which the Pilgrims would exchange European weaponry for Wampanoag for food. With the help of an English-speaking Patuxet Indian named Tisquantum (not Squanto he spoke English because he was kidnapped and sold in the European slave trade before making his way back to America), the Pilgrims produced a bountiful supply of food that summer. For their part, the Wampanoag were able to defend themselves against the Narragansett. The feast of indigenous foods that took place in October 1621, after the harvest, was one of thanks, but it more notably symbolized the rare, peaceful coexistence of the two groups.

The events that followed in New England also depart from the Thanksgiving ideal we celebrate. To read what happened to the New England Indians later in the 17th century, see the museum's earlier post Do Indians Celebrate Thanksgiving?

Lindsay McVay is a senior at the University of Central Florida, majoring in writing and rhetoric. Her professional experience includes writing grants for nonprofits contributing to blogs, especially Book Baristas and designing websites for Florida independent publishers. During the fall of 2017, Lindsay has worked as an intern in Marketing and Communications at the National Museum of the American Indian.


Pozri si video: Paula Peters: Why Wampanoag truths and traditions are so crucial to the Mayflower story (Január 2022).